Author(s): Rehan Haider


DOI: 10.52711/2231-5691.2023.00011   

Address: Rehan Haider
Riggs Pharmaceuticals Karachi Pakistan, Department of Pharmacy, University of Karachi.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 13,      Issue - 1,     Year - 2023

Alexander Fleming was one of the 100 most important people of the 20th century for his discovery of Penicillin '' It was the discovery that would change the course of history. The active ingredient in the mold, which Fleming named penicillin, turned out to be an infection-fighting agent of enormous potency'' A revolutionary development in science is a change in the way scientists perceive a certain idea or belief. The finding of Penicillin by Alexander Fleming in 1928 was a revolutionary development in the field of science. The discovery revolutionized the way infections were treated as well as impacted the scientific field, the medical field, the pharmaceuticals industry, and all humanity. Alexander Fleming's discovery of Penicillin sparked the development of antibiotics, which has continued to save People's lives since the revolution, making him a revolutionary figure. Despite the fact that Fleming was not only solely responsible for the revolutionary development, it was also his discovery of Penicillin that led to the development of antibiotics. In October 1945 Alexander Fleming, Howard Florey, and Ernest Chain each received an almost identical telegram from Stockholm, Sweden. The Nobel prize committee, these messages read, was pleased to inform the three British - based scientists that they had been awarded the Nobel prize for Medicine, for the discovery of Penicillin and its curative action in various disease1. This was not surprising news, In Fact, a year earlier, two major newspapers had informed their readers that Fleming would receive the prestigious award in 19442. Although reporters' stories were a year a hand of their time, they were right that the global scientific community had generally agreed that the world's first antibiotics were a landmark in medical history worthy of Nobel prize recognition. While the committee's decision to award the Nobel prize to the scientists who had developed penicillin was not controversial, the precise choice of whom to award the prize to was more fraught. The uncertainty arose because of the long and complicated process of drug development. The story began in 1928 when Alexander Fleming a Scottish bacteriologist working at St. Mary's Hospital Medical school in London, noticed that a specific strain of mold, Penicillium notatum, inhibited the growth of bacteria setting out to understand more about the mold s unusual properties, Fleming conducted additional experiments concluded that the antibiotics solution that he had made from the mold into a useable drug, convinced that further research on the substance would not be fruitful, Fleming turned to other matters. For a decade, Fleming's discovery attracted little attention then in 1938, two scientists working at the University of Oxford's Sir William Dunn School of Pathology. Howard Flory, an Australian Pathologist, and Ernest Chain, a German biochemist began researching a selection of antibacterial compounds. Over the next two years, chain and Florey, and their oxford colleagues experimented on Penicillium notatum. During that time, the scientists made several important discoveries and thwarted Fleming. By the spring of 1940, Florey and chain had developed a drug, which they mice. The following year, they carried out the first preliminary clinical trials on oxford. After the second world war, the battle for credit also acquired important national overtones. In telling the story of Penicillin's development, journalists and politicians incorporated the drug into celebratory narratives about national inventiveness, innovation, and character. In Britain and the united states' particularly myths of corporate ingenuity, economic opportunities missed and discoveries stolen would shape subsequent antibiotics development and the global production of Pharmaceuticals.

Cite this article:
Rehan Haider. Penicillin and the Antibiotics Revolution Global History. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2023; 13(1):55-2. doi: 10.52711/2231-5691.2023.00011

Rehan Haider. Penicillin and the Antibiotics Revolution Global History. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2023; 13(1):55-2. doi: 10.52711/2231-5691.2023.00011   Available on:

1.    The Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine 1945, Nobel Nobel Media AB medicine/ 1945/ summary/accessed 9 March 2020
2.    No author,' Fleming May Get Nobel prize ' daily mail,22 September 1944, No author,' Nobel prize forecast for penicillin Discoverer' The Washington Post,18 October 1944
3.    Gregory A Armstrong, Laura A Conn and Robert W Pinner, Trends in infection disease Mortality in the united states During the twentieth century, Journal of the American Medical Association, 281,1999 61-66
4.    RobertGaynes, Germ Theory, Medical Pioneers in infectious disease.( Washington DC 2011) John Waller, The discovery of the Germ Twenty years that transformed the way we think disease ( London 2002)
5.    Lindsay Fit Harris, The Butchering Art, Joseph Lister's Quest to Transform the Grisly World of Victorian medicine. New York 2017
6.    Thomas Hager, The Demon, under the microscope from Battlefield Hospital to Nazi labs, one doctor Herrick search for the world's first Miracle Drug.New York 2006
7.    Calvin Coolidge, The Autobiography of Calvin Coolidge.New York 1929, 190
8.    Ibid, Hager
9.    No author, Roosevelt Jr Goes to Capital, New York times 9 January 1937
10.    Kevin Brown, Penicillin Man, Alexander Fleming, and the Antibiotics Revolution. Stroud,2004, 101
11.    Robert Scott, Bernstein, discovering  Cambridge MA  1989 Ronald Hare, The  Birth of Penicillin and discovery of Microbes London 1970
12.    Ibid Brown 80 - 93
13.    Alexander Fleming,on the specific Antibacterial properties of penicillin and potassium tellurite incorporating a method of demonstrating some bacteria Antagonism, The Journal of Pathology and bacteriology  vol 35 no 6  831- 42
14.     Ibid lax  64- 71
15.    Ibid Macfarlane and Abraham
16.    N G Heatley, In Memoriam H W Florey- Journal of General Microbiology 61 1970,290
17.    Ibid Brown,290
18.    Ibid lax, 123- 35
19.    Ibid Brown 116
20.    Ibid lax  135- 37
21.    Ibid Brown 117-18
22.    Ibid Florey- and Florey-
23.    Formed in 1935 Glaxo smith kline was London based subsidiary of the New Zealand  firm Joseph Nathan and company the merger of Glaxo with another large pharmaceuticals company led to the formation of Gsk in 2000
24.    RPT Davenport - Hines and Judy slinn, Glaxo: A history to 1962 ( Cambridge 1992) 141-49
25.    No author, penicillin production in Great Britain, Nature,156( 1945) ,386- 87
26.    Robert Bud, penicillin Triumph and Tragedy ( New York,2007) 47- 8
27.    Claudia Flavell - while, Pfizer's penicillin Pioneers - Jasper Kana and John Mc keen  Chemical Engineer, Feb 2010, www the chemical / features/ cew ctw- Pfizer's - penicillin Pioneers - Jasper- Kane - and John Mc keen/accessed,24 April 2020
28.    Ibid Bud 45
29.    Ibid  49
30.    Ibid 75-84
31.    Slawomir Lotysz ' A lasting Memorial to the UNRRA, implementation of the penicillin plant program in Poland: 1946- 1949'  Icon vol 20 no 2 ( 2014) 70-91
32.    Nasir Tyabji, Gaining Technical know now in an unequal world penicillin Manufacture in Nehru's India ' Technology and culture,vol 45, no 2 ( 2004) 331- 49
33.    Malene Gist- en spiritus fabriek, Delft, Ph.D. dissertation (University of Sheffield, 2005)
34.    Ibid - Bud 94-5
35.    John Patrick Swann, The search for synthetic penicillin during world war, II  The British Journal for the History of  Science, vol 16 ,no 2 ( 1983) 154-90
36.    Milton wainwright, streptomycin discovery and Resultant controversy history and philosophy of the life sciences vol 13, no 1 (1991)97-124
37.    Ibid, 108
38.    P Roy vegelos and Louis Galambos was won And lost ( London, 1993) 339-41
39.    GBO, Giuseppe Brotzu and discovery of cephalosporin clinical Microbiology and infectious disease, vol 6 supplement 3 ( 2000) 7
40.    Ibid, Brown,197
41.    E P Abraham A Glimpse of the early history of the cephalosporin Review of infections disease, vol 1 no 1 ( 1979) 99- 105
42.    Class kirchhelle, Pharming animal  A Global History of Antibiotics in food production ( 1935-2017) Palgrave communication, vol 4 issue 96, ( 2018) 1- 13
43.    Robert Bud penicillin Triumph and Tragedy ( New York 2007) 176-80

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