Author(s): Ravi Kumar

Email(s): ravikashyap7417@gmail.com

DOI: 10.52711/2231-5691.2021.00036   

Address: Ravi Kumar
Bharat Institute of Technology, Meerut, UP.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 11,      Issue - 3,     Year - 2021


ABSTRACT:
In the “ecosystems-first” approach to the origins of life, networks of noncovalent assemblies of molecules (composomes), rather than individual protocells, evolved under the constraints of molecular complementarity. Composomes evolved into the hyperstructures of modern bacteria. We extend the ecosystems-first approach to explain the origin of eukaryotic cells through the integration of mixed populations of bacteria. We suggest that mutualism and symbiosis resulted in cellular mergers entailing the loss of redundant hyperstructures, the uncoupling of transcription and translation, and the emergence of introns and multiple chromosomes. Molecular complementarity also facilitated integration of bacterial hyperstructures to perform cytoskeletal and movement functions.


Cite this article:
Ravi Kumar. Evaluation of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cell. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2021; 11(3):202-5. doi: 10.52711/2231-5691.2021.00036

Cite(Electronic):
Ravi Kumar. Evaluation of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cell. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2021; 11(3):202-5. doi: 10.52711/2231-5691.2021.00036   Available on: https://asianjpr.com/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2021-11-3-10


REFERENCES:
1.    Hunding, A.; Kepes, F.; Lancet, D.; Minsky, A.; Norris, V.; Raine, D.; Sriram, K.; RootBernstein, R. Compositional complementarity and prebiotic ecology in the origin of life. Bioessays 2006, 28, 399-412. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10 2627.
2.    Norris, V.; Hunding, A.; Kepes, F.; Lancet, D.; Minsky, A.; Raine, D.; Root-Bernstein, R.; Sriram, K. Question 7: the first units of life were not simple cells. Orig. Life Evol. Biosph. 2007, 37, 429-432.
3.    Root-Bernstein, R.S. An "ecosystems-first" theory of the origin of life based on molecular complementarity. In Astrobiology: Emergence, Search, and Detection of Life; Basiuk, V.A., Ed.; American Scientific Publishers: Valencia, CA, USA, 2009; pp. 1-30.
4.    Root-Bernstein, R.S.; Dillon, P.F. Molecular complementarity I: The complementarity theory of the origin and evolution of life. J. Theor. Biol. 1997, 188, 447-479.
5.    Segre, D.; Lancet, D. A statistical chemistry approach to the origin of life. Chemtracts– Biochem. Mol. Biol. 1999, 12, 382-397.
6.    Segre, D.; Ben-Eli, D.; Lancet, D. Compositional genomes: prebiotic information transfer in mutually catalytic noncovalent assemblies. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 2000, 97, 4112-4117.
7.    Shenhav, B.; Bar-Even, A.; Kafri, R.; Lancet, D. Polymer Gard: Computer simulation of covalent bond formation in reproducing molecular assemblies. Origins Life Evol. Biosphere 2005, 35, c111–c131.
8.    Csaba, G. Phylogeny and ontogeny of hormone receptors: the selection theory of receptor formation and hormonal imprinting. Biol. Rev. Camb. Philos. Soc. 1980, 55, 47-63.
9.    Csaba, G. Hormonal imprinting: phylogeny, ontogeny, diseases and possible role in present-day human evolution. Cell Biochem. Funct. 2008, 26, 1-10.
10.    Dwyer, D.S. Amino acid sequence homology between ligands and their receptors: Potential identification of binding sites. Life Sci. 1989, 45, 421-429.
11.    Dwyer, D.S. Assembly of exons from unitary transposable genetic elements: Implications for the evolution of protein-protein interactions. J. Theor. Biol. 1998, 194, 11-27.
12.    Root-Bernstein, R.S. Peptide self-aggregation and peptide complementarity as bases for the evolution of peptide receptors: A review. J. Mol. Recognit. 2005, 18, 40-49.
13.    Koch, A.S.; Nienhaus, R.; Lautsch, M. Metastable equilibrium with random local fluctuations: Simulations of dynamic receptor pattern generation in a fluid mosaic membrane. Biol. Cybern. 1982, 44, 121-128.
14.    Steinberg, M.S. Differential adhesion in morphogenesis: a modern view. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 2007, 17, 281-286.
15.    Goldenfeld, N.; Woese, C. Biology's next revolution. Nature 2007, 445, 369.
16.    Woese, C.R.; Goldenfeld, N. How the microbial world saved evolution from the scylla of molecular biology and the charybdis of the modern synthesis. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 2009, 73, 14-21.
17.    Rickard, A.H.; Gilbert, P.; High, N.J.; Kolenbrander, P.E.; Handley, P.S. Bacterial coaggregation: An integral process in thedevelopment of multi-species biofilms. Trends Microbiol. 2003, 11, 94-100.
18.    Spudich, J.L.; Koshland, D.E., Jr. Non-genetic individuality: chance in the single cell. Nature 1976, 262, 467-471.
19.    Adler, J. Chemotaxis in bacteria. Science 1966, 153, 708-716. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10 2628
20.    Wu, M.; Roberts, J.W.; Kim, S.; Koch, D.L.; DeLisa, M.P. Collective bacterial dynamics revealed using a three-dimensional population-scale defocused particle tracking technique. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2006, 72, 4987-4994.
21.    Vollmer, W.; Joris, B.; Charlier, P.; Foster, S. Bacterial peptidoglycan (murein) hydrolases. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 2008, 32, 259-286.
22.    Guiral, S.; Mitchell, T.J.; Martin, B.; Claverys, J.P. Competence-programmed predation of noncompetent cells in the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae: Genaetic requirements. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2005, 102, 8710-8715.
23.    Rosenbluh, A.; Rosenberg, E. Developmental lysis and auticides. In Myxobacteria II, Dworkin, M., Kaiser, D., Eds.; American Society for Microbioloy: Washington, D.C., USA, 1993; pp. 213-233.
24.    Ellermeier, C.D.; Hobbs, E.C.; Gonzalez-Pastor, J.E.; Losick, R. A three-protein signaling pathway governing immunity to a bacterial cannibalism toxin. Cell 2006, 124, 549-559.
25.    Ward, R.J.; Clements, K.D.; Choat, J.H.; Angert, E.R. Cytology of terminally differentiated Epulopiscium mother cells. DNA Cell Biol. 2009, 28, 57-64.
26.    Kaiser, D. Signaling in myxobacteria. Annu Rev Microbiol 2004, 58, 75-98.
27.    Hendrix, R.W.; Lawrence, J.G.; Hatfull, G.F.; Casjens, S. The origins and ongoing evolution of viruses. Trends Microbiol. 2000, 8, 504-508.
28.    Forterre, P. The origin of viruses and their possible roles in major evolutionary transitions. Virus Res. 2006, 117, 5-16.
29.    Mirold, S.; Rabsch, W.; Rohde, M.; Stender, S.; Tschape, H.; Russmann, H.; Igwe, E.; Hardt, W.D. Isolation of a temperate bacteriophage encoding the type III effector protein SopE from an epidemic Salmonella typhimurium strain. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1999, 96, 9845-9850.
30.    Whitman, W.B.; Coleman, D.C.; Wiebe, W.J. Prokaryotes: The unseen majority. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1998, 95, 6578-6583.
31.    Mathieu, L.G.; Sonea, S. A powerful bacterial world. Endeavour 1995, 19, 112-117.
32.    Chen, Y.; Erickson, H.P. In vitro assembly studies of FtsZ/tubulin-like proteins (TubZ) from Bacillus plasmids: Evidence for a capping mechanism. J. Biol. Chem. 2008, 283, 8102-8109.
33.    Jones, L.J.; Carballido-Lopez, R.; Errington, J. Control of cell shape in bacteria. Helical, actinlike filaments in Bacillus subtilis. Cell 2001, 104, 913-922.
34.    Thanedar, S.; Margolin, W. FtsZ exhibits rapid movement and oscillation waves in helix-like patterns in Escherichia coli. Curr. Biol. 2004, 14, 1167-1173.
35.    Ausmees, N.; Kuhn, J.R.; Jacobs-Wagner, C. The bacterial cytoskeleton: An intermediate filament-like function in cell shape. Cell 2003, 115, 705-713.
36.    Norris, V.; den Blaauwen, T.; Cabin-Flaman, A.; Doi, R.H.; Harshey, R.; Janniere, L.; JimenezSanchez, A.; Jin, D.J.; Levin, P.A.; Mileykovskaya, E.; Minsky, A.; Saier, M., Jr.; Skarstad, K. Functional taxonomy of bacterial hyperstructures. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 2007, 71, 230-253.
37.    Lowe, J.; Amos, L.A. Crystal structure of the bacterial cell-division protein FtsZ. Nature 1998, 391, 203-206.

Recomonded Articles:

Author(s): Mercy Mathew, Ravikumar, Simila Madathil, Anju Govind, Narayana Swamy VB

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5691.2016.00015.0         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Bhushan P. Gayakwad, Shashikant D. Barhate, Mayur S. Jain

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5691.2017.00039.9         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Niyaz Kavugoli, Ravikumar, Narayanaswamy VB

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5691.2016.00018.6         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Injamamul Haque, Ravikumar, Narayanaswamy VB, Mohibul Hoque

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5691.2016.00023.X         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Lalita Balasaheb Patil, Swapnil S. Patil, Manoj M. Nitalikar, Chandrakant S. Magdum, Shrinivas K. Mohite

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5691.2016.00030.7         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): V. N. Dange, S. J. Shid, C.S. Magdum, S.K. Mohite

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5691.2017.00008.9         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Dasari Nirmala, Swapna Nandhini, M. Sudhakar

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5691.2016.00012.5         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): V. Saranya, P.Madhanraj, A. Panneerselvam

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Raafia Aseena, Syeda Zeba Hyder Zaidi, Nuha Rasheed, Abdul Saleem Mohammad

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5691.2017.00040.5         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Ghanshyam Dhalendra, Trilochan Satapathy, Amit Roy

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): N. S. Patil, K. B. Patil, M. R. Patil, R. A. Ahirrao

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5691.2018.00037.0         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Mayur S. Jain, Shashikant D. Barhate, Bhushan P. Gayakwad, Prafull P. Patil

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5691.2018.00019.9         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Dilip M. Kumbhar, Vijay D. Havaldar, Kailas K. Mali, Remeth J. Dias, Vishwajeet S. Ghorpade, Rahul B. Londhe

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5691.2017.00002.8         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Rahamat Unissa, Bayyaram Monica, Sowmya Konakanchi, Rahul Darak, Sandagalla Lipi Keerthana, Saranya Arun Kumar

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5691.2018.00034.5         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Mitul R. Vasanani, Nisha Patel, Divyakant Patel , Rajesh KS, Lalit Lata Jha

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Batra Neha, Jain Honey, Bairwa Ranjan, Bachwani Mukesh

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Jude Chigozie Ikewuchi, Catherine Chidinma Ikewuchi and Mercy Onuekwuzu Ifeanacho

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Uma Sankar Gorla,. M. Savithri, G.S.N. Koteswara Rao,. Y. Niharika, . P. Devi Sree Sathya, . V. Harika

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5691.2018.00006.0         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Dibyajyoti Saha, Ankit Tamrakar, Mayukh Jana, Supradip Mandal

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research (AJPRes.) is an international, peer-reviewed journal, devoted to pharmaceutical sciences. AJPRes. publishes Original Research Articles, Short Communications..... Read more >>>

RNI: Not Available                     
DOI: 10.5958/2231–5691 


Recent Articles




Tags