An communicable disease outbreak in the China in December 2019 has established with a record number of deaths in China and intermittent spread of infection to other countries. Coronaviruses (Corona: Crown like shape) were recognized in 1968 totally on the idea of their characteristics morphology as seen in microscope. Coronaviruses (CoVs) primarily cause multiple respiratory and internal organ infection in human and animals. Although the history of CoVs began in 1940’s, the identification of the first human CoVs were reported in 1960’s as causative agent for mild respiratory infection. In this review, we have to shortly explain coronavirus, Taxonomy, Types, structure and it's replication, Sign and symptoms, method of detection, pharmacological agent and also herbal treatment for management of covid 19.
Cite this article:
Vaishnavi. K. Patil, Azam. Z. Shaikh. Corona (Covid - 19). Asian J. Pharm. Res. 2020; 10(4):275-285. doi: 10.5958/2231-5691.2020.00048.9
1. A. Savarino, J.R. Boelaert, A. Cassone, G. Majori, R. Cauda. Effects of chloroquine on viral infections: an old drug against today’s diseases? Lancet. Infect. Dis. 2003, 3 (11), 722–727.
2. An J, Woodward JJ, Sasaki T et al. Cutting edge: antimalarial drugs inhibit IFN-b production through blockade of cyclic GMP-AMP synthase-DNA interaction. J Immunol 2015; 194: 4089–93
3. Arbour, N. et al. (1999) Persistent infection of human oligodendrocytic and neuroglial cell lines by human coronavirus 229E. J. Virol. 73, 3326–3337
4. Arbour, N. et al. (2000) Neuroinvasion by human respiratory coronaviruses. J. Virol. 74, 8913–8921
5. Arden, K. E., P. McErlean, M. D. Nissen, T. P. Sloots, and I. M. Mackay. 2006. Frequent detection of human rhinoviruses, paramyxoviruses, coronaviruses, and bocavirus during acute respiratory tract infections. J. Med. Virol. 78:1232-1240
6. Bailey, O.T. et al. (1949) A murine virus (jhm) causing disseminated encephalomyelitis with extensive destruction of myelin: II. Pathology. J. Exp. Med. 90, 195–212
7. Bass EP, Sharpee RL (1975) Coronavirus and gastroenteritis in foals. Lancet II, p 822.
8. Bhupendra S. Chhikara, Brijesh Rathi, Jyoti Singh, Poonam. Corona virus SARS-CoV-2 disease COVID-19: Infection, prevention and clinical advances of the prospective chemical drug therapeutics. Chem. Biol. Lett. 2020, 7(1), 63‐72.
9. Brian DA, Dennis DE, Guy JS (1980) Genome of porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus. JVirol 34:410415.
10. C.S. Goldsmith, K.M. Tatti, T.G. Ksiazek, et al. Ultrastructural characterization of SARS coronavirus. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 2004, 10 (2), 320–326
11. Cavanagh D (1981) Structural polypeptides of coronavirus my. J Gen ViroI53:93-103
12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Information for laboratories 2019-nCoV requests for diagnostic panels and virus. 2019. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/lab/rt-pcr-panelprimer- probes.html
13. Cheever, F.S. et al. (1949) A murine virus (JHM) causing disseminated encephalomyelitis with extensive destruction of myelin: I. Isolation and biological properties of the virus. J. Exp. Med. 90, 181–210
14. Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response. World Health Organization, 659_TD$DIFF] Geneva May 7, 2003; http://www.who.int/csr/sars/archive/ 2003_05_07a/en and http://www.who.int/csr/sars/country/ en/ country2003_08_15.pdf (August 15)
15. Craig R. Rayner, Patrick F Smith, Kevin Hershberger, David Wesche. Optimizing COVID-19 candidate therapeutics: Thinking Without Borders. American society for clinical pharmacology and therapeutics.2020. https:// ascpt. onlinelibrary. wiley.comhttps://doi.org/10.1111/cts.12790
16. D. Sharma, M. Pathak, R. Sharma, et al. Homology modeling and docking studies of VP24 protein of Ebola virus with an antiviral drug and its derivatives. Chem. Biol. Lett. 2017, 4 (1), 27–32.
17. D.K. Behera, P.M. Behera, L. Acharya, A. Dixit. Development and validation of pharmacophore and QSAR models for influenza PB2 inhibitors. Chem. Biol. Lett. 2017, 4 (1), 1–8.
18. Darbyshire JH, Cook JKA, Peters RW (1978) Growth comparisons of avian infectious bronchitis virus strains in organ cultures of chicken tissues. Arch Virol 56:317-325
19. Das, S., Chandra, A., Agarwal, S., S, N. 1983. Ocimum sanctum (tulsi) in the treatment of viral encephalitis (A preliminary clinical trial). Antiseptic, 80:323–327.
20. Davies H, Macnaughton MR (1979) Comparison of the morphology of three coronaviruses. Arch Virol 59:25-33
21. de Groot, R.J. et al. (2011) Family Coronaviridae. In Ninth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (King, A.M.Q., ed.), pp. 806–828, Elsevier, Oxford.
22. Erin K. McCreary and Jason M. Pogue. COVID-19 Treatment: A Review of Early and Emerging Option. https://academic.oup.com/ofid/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/ofid/ofaa105/5811022 (2020)
23. Evermann JF, Baumgartener L, Ott RL, Davis EV, McKeirnan AJ (1981) Characterization of a feline infectious peritonitis virus isolate. Vet PathoI18:256-265
24. Ewald SE, Lee BL, Lau L et al. The ectodomain of Toll-like receptor 9 is cleaved to generate a functional receptor. Nature 2008; 456: 658–62.
25. Freymuth, F., A. Vabret, D. Cuvillon-Nimal, S. Simon, J. Dina, L. Legrand, S. Gouarin, J. Petitjean, P. Eckart, and J. Brouard. 2006. Comparison of multiplex PCR assays and conventional techniques for the diagnostic of respiratory virus infections in children admitted to hospital with an acute respiratory illness. J. Med. Virol. 78:1498-1504.
26. Forni, D. et al. (2017) Molecular evolution of human coronavirus genomes. Trends Microbiol. 25, 35–48
27. Forster, J., G. Ihorst, C. H. Rieger, V. Stephan, H. D. Frank, H. Gurth, R. Berner, A. Rohwedder, H. Werchau, M. Schumacher, T. Tsai, and G. Petersen. 2004. Prospective population-based study of viral lower respiratory tract infections in children under 3 years of age (the PRI.DE study). Eur. J. Pediatr. 163:709-716
28. Garbino, J., S. Crespo, J. D. Aubert, T. Rochat, B. Ninet, C. Deffernez, W. Wunderli, J. C. Pache, P. M. Soccal, and L. Kaiser. 2006. A prospective hospital-based study of the clinical impact of non-severe acute respiratory syndrome (Non-SARS)-related human coronavirus infection. Clin. Infect. Dis. 43:1009-1015.
29. Garwes DJ, Reynolds DJ (1981) The structure of canine coronavirus and its relationship to porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus. J Gen Virol 52:153-157
30. Geller, C. et al. (2012) Human coronaviruses: insights into environmental resistance and its influence on the development of new antiseptic strategies. Viruses 4, 3044– 3068
31. Gerdes JC, Klein I, De Vald B, Burks JS (1981b) Coronavirus isolates SK and SD from multiple sclerosis patients are serologically related to murine coronaviruses A59 and JHM and human coronavirus OC43, but not to human coronavirus 229E. J Virol 38:231-238.
32. H. Li, Y.M. Wang, J.Y. Xu, B. Cao. Potential antiviral therapeutics for 2019 Novel Coronavirus. ZhonghuaJie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi 2020, 43 (0), E002–E002.
33. Hacker H, Mischak H, Miethke T et al. CpG-DNA-specific activation of antigen-presenting cells requires stress kinase activity and is preceded by non-specific endocytosis and endosomal maturation. EMBO J 1998; 17: 6230–40.
34. Hamre, D. et al. (1966) A new virus isolated from the human respiratory tract. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 121, 190–193.
35. Hirai K, Hitchner SB, Calnek BW (1979) Characterization of a new coronavirus -like agent isolated from parrots. Avian Dis 23:515-525
36. Iwane, M. K., K. M. Edwards, P. G. Szilagyi, F. J. Walker, M. R. Griffin, G. A. Weinberg, C. Coulen, K. A. Poehling, L. P. Shone, S. Balter, C. B. Hall, D. D. Erdman, K. Wooten, and B. Schwartz. 2004. Population-based surveillance for hospitalizations associated with respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus, and parainfluenza viruses among young children. Pediatrics 113:1758-1764.
37. J. F. Chan, S. Yuan, K. H. Kok, K. K. To, H. Chu, J. Yang, F. Xing, J. Liu, C. C. Yip, R. W. Poon, H. W. Tsoi, S. K. Lo, K. H. Chan, V. K. Poon, W. M. Chan, J. D. Ip, J. P. Cai, V. C. Cheng, H. Chen, C. K. Hui, K. Y. Yuen, Lancet 2020, 395,514.
38. J. Gao, Z. Tian, X. Yang. Breakthrough: Chloroquine phosphate has shown apparent efficacy in treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical studies. Biosci. Trends 2020, 10.5582/bst.2020.01047.
39. J. Lim, S. Jeon, H.Y. Shin, et al. Case of the index patient who caused tertiary transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 in Korea: The application of lopinavir/ritonavir for the treatment of COVID-19 pneumonia monitored by quantitative RT-PCR. J. Korean Med. Sci. 2020, 35 (6), e79–e79.
40. J. Millán-Oñate, A.J. Rodriguez-Morales, G. Camacho-Moreno, et al. A new emerging zoonotic virus of concern: the 2019 novel Coronavirus (COVID-19). Infectio 2020, 24 (3).
41. J. S. Gootenberg, O. O. Abudayyeh, J. W. Lee, P. Essletzbichler, A. J. Dy, J. Joung, V. Verdine, N. Donghia, N. M. Daringer, C. A. Freije, C. Myhrvold, R. P. Bhattacharyya, J. Livny, A. Regev, E. V. Koonin, D. T. Hung, P. C. Sabeti, J. J. Collins, F. Zhang, Science 2017, 356, 438.
42. J. Singh, B.S. Chhikara. Comparative global epidemiology of HIV infections and status of current progress in treatment. Chem. Biol. Lett. 2014, 1 (1), 14–32
43. J. Wu, J. Liu, X. Zhao, et al. Clinical Characteristics of Imported Cases of COVID-19 in Jiangsu Province: A Multicenter Descriptive Study. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2020, ciaa199
44. J.S. Morse, T. Lalonde, S. Xu, W.R. Liu. Learning from the Past: Possible Urgent Prevention and Treatment Options for Severe Acute Respiratory Infections Caused by 2019-nCoV. ChemBioChem 2020, 21 (5), 730–738.
45. Jacomy, H. et al. (2006) Human coronavirus OC43 infection induces chronic encephalitis leading to disabilities in BALB/C mice. Virology 349, 335–346
46. Jartti, T., P. Lehtinen, T. Vuorinen, R. Osterback, H. B. van den, A. D. Osterhaus, and O. Ruuskanen. 2004. Respiratory picornaviruses and respiratory syncytial virus as causative agents of acute expiratory wheezing in children. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10:1095-1101.
47. K. McIntosh. Coronaviruses: a comparative review. In Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology/Ergebnisse der Mikrobiologie und Immunitätsforschung; Springer, 1974; pp 85–129.
48. Kanwar, A. et al. (2017) Human coronavirus-HKU1 infection among adults in Cleveland, Ohio. Open Forum Infect Dis. 4 (2), ofx052
49. Krzysztof Antoni Pyrc: Virus discovery and human coronavirus NL63; Institutional Repository of the University of Amsterdam (UvA) (2007);7; http://dare.uva.nl/record/ 224746
50. Kuznik A, Bencina M, Svajger U et al. Mechanismof endosomal TLR inhibition by antimalarial drugs and imidazoquinolines. J Immunol 2011; 186: 4794–804.
51. L.Chen, W. Liu, Q. Zhang, K. Xu, G. Ye, W. Wu, Z. Sun, F. Liu, K Wu, B. Zhong, Y. Mei, W. Zhang, Y. Chen, Y. Li, M. Shi, K. Lan, Y. Liu, Emerg. Microbes Infect. 2020, 9, 313.
52. L.L.M. Poon, M. Peiris. Emergence of a novel human coronavirus threatening human health. Nat. Med. 2020.
53. LAI, M. M. C. (1986). Coronavirus leader-RNA-primed transcription: an alternative mechanism to RNA splicing. BioEssays 5, 257-260
54. Laporte J, Bobulesco P, Rossi F (1980b) Une ligneecellulaireparticulierement sensible a la replication da Coronavirus enteritique bovine: les cellules HRT 18. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaire des Seances de L' Academie des Sciences Serie D 290:623-626
55. Lau, S.K.P. et al. (2006) Coronavirus HKU1 and other coronavirus infections in Hong Kong. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44, 2063–2071
56. Lotteau V, Teyton L, Peleraux A et al. Intracellular transport of class IIMHC molecules directed by invariant chain. Nature 1990; 348: 600–5.
57. M. Li, R. Jin, Y. Peng, et al. Generation of antibodies against COVID- 19 virus for development of diagnostic tools. medRxiv2020
58. Macnaughton MR, Madge MR (1978) The genome of human coronavirus strain 229E. J Gen Virol 39:497-504
59. McIntosh, K. et al. (1967) Recovery in tracheal organ cultures of novel viruses from patients with respiratory disease. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 57, 933–940
60. Michael M. C. Lai. Coronavirus: Organization, Replication and Expression of Genome. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 1990. 44:303-33
61. Mohan, L., Amberkar, M. V., M, K. 2011. Ocimum sanctum Linn. (TULSI)-an overview. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res, 7:51–53. Mohan, L., Amberkar, M. V., M, K. 2011. Ocimum sanctum Linn. (TULSI)-an overview. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res, 7:51–53.
62. Mondal, S., Mirdha, B. R., S, M. 2009. The science behind sacredness of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.). Indian J Physiol Pharmacol, 53:291–306.
63. Mondal, S., Varma, S., Bamola, V. D., Naik, S. N., Mirdha, B. R., Padhi, M. M., Mahapatra, S. C. 2011. Double-blinded randomized controlled trial for immunomodulatory effects of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) leaf extract on healthy volunteers. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 136(3):452–456.
64. N. Sharma, P. FNU, P. Kempaiah, B. Rathi. Chemical libraries targeting Liver Stage Malarial infection. Chem. Biol. Lett. 2019, 6 (1), 14–22.
65. National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention. Specific primers and probes for detection 2019 novel coronavirus. 2020. http://ivdc.chinacdc.cn/kyjz/202001/t20200121_211337.html
66. O. O. Abudayyeh, J. S. Gootenberg, S. Konermann, J. Joung, I. M Slaymaker, D. B. Cox, S. Shmakov, K. S. Makarova, E. Semenova, L. Minakhin, K. Severinov, A. Regev, E. S. Lander, E. V. Koonin, F. Zhang, Science 2016, 353, aaf5573.
67. P.J. Bindu, T.R.R. Naik, K.M. Mahadevan, G. Krishnamurthy. Synthesis, DNA photocleavage, molecular docking and anticancer studies of 2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolines. Chem. Biol. Lett. 2019, 6 (1), 8–13.
68. Pattanayak, P., Behera, P., Das, D., Panda, S. K. 2010. Ocimum sanctum Linn. A reservoir plant for therapeutic applications: An overview. Pharmacognosy Reviews, 4(7):95–105.
69. Pensaert MB, Debouck P (1978) A new coronavirus-like particle associated with diarrhoea in swine. Arch Virol 58:243-247
70. Pillaiyar T, Meenakshisundaram S, Manickam M. 2020. Recent discovery and development of inhibitors targeting coronaviruses. Drug Discov Today S1359- 6446(20)30041-6. doi: 10.1016/j.drudis.2020.01.015
71. Pocock DH (1978) Effect of sulphydryl reagents on the biological activities, polypeptide composition, and morphology of haemagglutinatingencephylomyelitis virus. J Gen Virol 40:93-101
72. Poonam, Y. Gupta, N. Gupta, et al. Multistage inhibitors of the malaria parasite: Emerging hope for chemoprotection and malaria eradication. Med. Res. Rev. 2018, 38 (5), 1511–1535.
73. Prakash, P., Gupta, N. 2005. Therapeutic uses of Ocimum sanctum Linn (Tulsi) with a note on eugenol and its pharmacological actions: a short review. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 49(2):125–131.
74. R. Yan, Y. Zhang, Y. Li, et al. Structural basis for the recognition of the SARS-CoV-2 by full-length human ACE2. Science (80-. ). 2020, eabb2762
75. Rajalakshmi, S., Sivanandam, G., V, G. 1986. Role of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) in the management of ManjalKamalai (viral hepatitis). Journal ofResearch in Ayurveda and Siddha, 9(3-4):118–123
76. Ran Lui, Aisi Fu, Zixin Deng, Yan Li, Tiangang Liu. promosing method for detection of novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. VIEW.2020. DOI: 10.1002/viw2.4.
77. Robb JA, Bond CW (1979a) Coronaviridae. vol 14. In: Fraenkel-Conrat H, Wagner RR (eds) Comprehensive Virology. Plenum Press, New York, pp 193-247
78. Ruiz-Irastorza G, Ramos-Casals M, Brito-Zeron P et al. Clinical efficacy and side effects of antimalarials in systemic lupus erythematosus: a systematic review. Ann RheumDis 2010; 69: 20–8.
79. S. Kumar, P. FNU, B. Rathi. Coronavirus Disease COVID-19: A New Threat to Public Health. Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry. 2020, pp 1–2
80. S. Shmakov, A. Smargon, D. Scott, D. Cox, N. Pyzocha, W. Yan, O. O. Abudayyeh, J. S. Gootenberg, K. S. Makarova, Y. I. Wolf, K. Severinov, F. Zhang, E. V. Koonin, Microbiology 2017, 15, 169.
81. Sai Sailesh Kumar Goothy, Srilatha Goothy, Anita Choudhary, Potey G G, Hirok Chakraborty, Arun HS Kumar, Mahadik V K. Ayurveda’s Holistic Lifestyle Approach for the Management of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): Possible Role of Tulsi. Int. J. Res. Pharm. Sci., 2020, 11(SPL) (1), 16-18. DOI: https://doi.org/10.26452/ijrps. v11iSPL1.1976
82. Sharma, G. 1983. Anti-asthmatic efficacy of Ocimum sanctum. SachitraAyurved, 35:665–668.
83. Shay, D. K., R. C. Holman, R. D. Newman, L. L. Liu, J. W. Stout, and L. J. Anderson. 1999. Bronchiolitis-associated hospitalizations among US children, 1980-1996. JAMA 282:1440-1446.
84. Shivananjappa, M., Joshi, M. 2012. Aqueous Extract of Tulsi ( Ocimum sanctum ) Enhances Endogenous Antioxidant Defenses of Human Hepatoma Cell Line (HepG2). Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants, 18(4):331–348
85. Singh, N., Hoette, Y., R, M. 2010. Tulsi: The Mother Medicine of Nature, Lucknow. International Institute of Herbal Medicine. pages 28–47.
86. SlDDELL, S. (1983). Coronavirus JHM: coding assignments of subgenomic mRNAs. Journal of General Virology 64, 113-125
87. Smuts, H. (2008) Human coronavirus NL63 infections in infants hospitalised with acute respiratory tract infections in South Africa. Influenza Other Respir. Viruses 2, 135–138
88. ST. SIDDELL, H. WEGE, AND V. TER MEULEN.The Structure and Replication of Coronaviruses. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology.Springer.1982:131-163,
89. Storz J, Rott R, Kaluza G (1981b) Enhancement of plaque formation and cell fusion of an enteropathogenic coronavirus by trypsin treatment. Infect Immun 31:1214-1222
90. STURMAN, L. & HOLMES, K. (1985). The novel glycoproteins of coronaviruses. Trends in Biochemical Sciences 10, 17-20.
91. STURMAN, L. S. & HOLMES, K. V. (1983). The molecular biology of coronaviruses. Advances in Virus Research 28, 35-112
92. Su, S. et al. (2016) Epidemiology, genetic recombination, and pathogenesis of coronaviruses. Trends Microbiol. 24, 490–502.
93. T.-T. Yao, J.-D. Qian, W.-Y. Zhu, Y. Wang, G.-Q. Wang. A Systematic Review of Lopinavir Therapy for SARS Coronavirus and MERS Coronavirus-A Possible Reference for Coronavirus Disease-19 Treatment Option. J. Med. Virol. 2020, 10.1002/jmv.25729.
94. Tanu Singhal (2020). A Review of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19). The Indian Journal of Pediatrics .https://doi.org/10.1007/s12098-020-03263-6
95. Tyrrell DAJ, Alexander DJ, Almeida JD, Cunningham CH, Easterday BC, Garwes DJ, Hierholzer JC, Kapikian A, Macnaughton MR, McIntosh K (1978) Coronaviridae. 2nd report Intervirology 10:321-328
96. Tyrrell DAJ, Almeida JD, Berry DM, Cunningham CH, Hamre D, Hofstad MS, Mallucci L, Mcintosh K (1968) Coronaviruses. Nature 220:650
97. Vabret, A. et al. (2003) An outbreak of coronavirus OC43 respiratory infection in Normandy, France. Clin. Infect. Dis. 36, 985–989
98. Vabret, A. et al. (2006) Detection of the new human coronavirus HKU1: a report of 6 Cases. Clin. Infect. Dis. 42, 634–639.
99. van den Borne BE, Dijkmans BA, de Rooij HH et al. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine equally affect tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin 6, and interferon-gamma production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J Rheumatol 1997; 24: 55–60.
100. Vollmer J, Tluk S, Schmitz C et al. Immune stimulation mediated by autoantigen binding sites within small nuclear RNAs involves Toll-like receptors 7 and 8. J ExpMed2005; 202: 1575–85
101. W. SPAAN, D. CAVANAGH AND M. C. HORZINEK. REVIEW ARTICLE Coronaviruses: Structure and Genome Expression.J. gen. Virol. (1988), 69, 2939-2952
102. W.-j. Guan, Z.-y. Ni, Y. Hu, W.-h. Liang, C.-q. Ou, J.-x. He, L. Liu, H. Shan, C.-l. Lei, D. S. Hui, B. Du, L.-j. Li, G. Zeng, K. - Y. Yuen, R.-c. Chen, C.-l. Tang, T.Wang, P.-y. Chen, J. Xiang, S.-y. Li, J.-l. Wang, Z.-j. Liang, Y.-x. Peng, L. Wei, Y. Liu, Y.-h. Hu, P. Peng, J.-m. Wang, J.-y. Liu, Z. Chen, G. Li, Z.-j. Zheng, S.- q. Qiu, J. Luo, C.-j. Ye, S.-y. Zhu, N.-s. Zhong, N. Engl. J. Med. 2020, https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2002032.
103. Wang M, Cao R, Zhang L, et al. Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro. Cell research. 2020;30(3):269-271.
104. WHO (2014) Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) summary and literature update-as of 20 January. Geneva, Switzerland, WHO.
105. WHO COVID-19, Situation report 64. https://www.who.int/ docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200324-sitrep-64-covid-19.pdf?sfvrsn=723b221e_2
106. WHO COVD -19, situation report 65. https://www.who.int/docs/defaultsource/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200325-sitrep-65-covid19.pdf?sfvrsn=ce13061b_2
107. WHO COVID-19, situation report 73. https://www.who. int/docs/defaultsource/coronaviruse/situation-reports/ 20200402-sitrep-73-covid19.pdf?sfvrsn=5ae25bc7_6
108. WHO COVID-19, situation report 123. https://www.who.int/ docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200522-covid-19-sitrep-123.pdf?sfvrsn=5ad1bc3_4
109. WHO COVID-19, Situation report 146. https://www.who.int/ docs/ default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200614-covid-19-sitrep-146.pdf?sfvrsn=5b89bdad_6
110. WHO guidelines on hand hygiene in health care: first global patient safety challenge – clean care is safer care. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2009 (https://apps.who.int/iris/ handle/10665/44102, accessed 17 January 2020).
111. Woo, P.C. et al. (2012) Discovery of seven novel mammalian and avian coronaviruses in the genus deltacoronavirus supports bat coronaviruses as the gene source of alphacoronavirus and betacoronavirus and avian coronaviruses as the gene source of gammacoronavirus and deltacoronavirus. J. Virol. 86, 3995–4008
112. World Health Organization. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation Report - 58. < https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200318-sitrep-58-covid-19.pdf?sfvrsn=20876712_2> (2020). Accessed 20 March 2020.
113. World Health organization. Infection prevention and control during health care when COVID-19 is suspected Interim guidance 19 March 2020
114. Wu SF, Chang CB, Hsu JM et al. Hydroxychloroquine inhibits CD154 expression in CD4(+) T lymphocytes of systemic lupus erythematosus through NFAT, but not STAT5, signaling. Arthritis Res Ther 2017;19: 183.
115. X. Jiang, S. Rayner, M. Luo. Does SARS‐CoV‐2 has a longer incubation period than SARS and MERS? J. Med. Virol. 2020
116. X. Pan, D. Chen, Y. Xia, et al. Asymptomatic cases in a family cluster with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Lancet Infect. Dis. 2020.
117. Y. Bai, L. Yao, T. Wei, et al. Presumed asymptomatic carrier transmission of COVID-19. JAMA 2020
118. Y. Liu, A.A. Gayle, A. Wilder-Smith, J. Rocklöv. The reproductive number of COVID-19 is higher compared to SARS coronavirus. J. Travel Med. 2020.