Analgesic activity of Hydroalcholic extract of Achyranthes aspera leaves on animal model

 

Dr. Karunakar Shukla1, Dr. Sourabh Jain1, Narendra Patil1*, Ketan Patil2, Kalpesh Wagh2

1Department of Pharmacology, Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam University Indore, MP., India.

2Department of Phamaceuices, KVPS Institute of Pharmaceutical Education, Boradi, MS., India.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: pnarendra101@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Achyranthes aspera L. (Family: Amaranthaceae) is widely used as a medicinal plant. The hydroalcholic extract of Achyranthes aspera L. leaves was screened for its analgesic activity. The dose (200 mg/kg) was tested for analgesic activity using hot plate and Tail flick test in albino mice. The hydroalcholic extract of Achyranthes aspera L. leaves showed maximum analgesic activity in hot plate at reaction time 120 min (7.40±0.08) and tail flick method at reaction time 120 min (6.9±0.06). These study suggest that the hydroalcholic extract of Achyranthes aspera L. could be considered as potential analgesic agent.

 

KEYWORDS: Achyranthes aspera L., Analgesic activity, Albino mice, Pentazocine.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

Pain is intolerable sensation in the body.1 pain sensation may be mechanical,thermal and electrical stimulation is initiated by peripheral receptors.2 Herbal medicine have been employed in complementary and alternative medicine for management of pain.3

 

Achyranthes aspera L.(Amaranthace)is dark green in color plant growing upto 30-200 cm in height. Achyranthes aspera belongs to the kingdom of plantae.4 It is occurring in tropical area of Asia and African countries.It is found in india in South Andaman Islands. It is commonly known as in India 'Aghara'.5

 

The Achyranthes aspera commonly used as a antioxidant, Antipyretic, antispasmodic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory.6 The leaves extract used in treatment of leprosy and tumor management.7

 

This present study aims to screening analgesic activity of Achyranthes aspera of Hydroalcholic extract on animal model.

 

METHODOLOGY:

Animal:

Albino mice of either sex (140-160 g) were used in this study from the Animal house approved by animal ethical committee (IAEC/COP/2020-21/06) College of Pharmacy, Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam University, Indore was used for present study. They were kept in plastic cages in cool place at 22±3 ºC in 10-14 hours light dark cycle. Relative humidity (60%) condition. They were acclimatized to the laboratory conditions for an amount of five days before the study. They were given balanced feed and water adlibitum.

 

Plant collection and Identification:

Plant material (Achyranthes aspera) collected from farm of Shirpur, India. The plant was identified and authenticated at the herbarium of SPDM college of Shirpur.

Chemicals:

Pentazocine procured from the Indoco Pharmaceutical Ltd., Ethanol, procured from reputed organization. All the chemicals and reagents used are analytical in grade.

Preparation of Plant Extract:

The coarse air dried powder of Achyranthes aspera leaves extracted with 800ml of ethanol and Water (70:30 proportions) in Soxhlets apparatus. The Solution was filtered and evaporates filtrate to dried. The dried extract used for further studies.

Acute toxicity Studies:

The acute toxicity was performed according to OECD guidelines.8 The Six albino mice were used for toxicity studies and fasted for 4 hours prior to the experiment.The albino mice were administered single dose 200 mg/kg of hydroalcholic extract of Achyranthes aspera by orally using oral gavage. After administered of dose observed continuously for first four hours for behavioral changes (hyperactivity,ataxia, convulsion, salivation, tremors and diarrhea) and since no death was observed within 24 hours and then were kept under observation upto 14 days after drug administration to determine the mortality and general signs and symptoms of toxicity.

Experimental animal:

Albino mice of either sex (140-160g) were randomly divided into three groups (Control, Standard and test groups) comprising of three animals in each group to perform the analgesic activity. The first group was assigned as a control and administered distilled water orally at a dose 10ml/kg. The Second group was assigned as standard and administered Pentazocine (10mg/kg i.p.). as standard drug. The test groups were given dose (200mg/kg) of fraction are given by orally using an oral gavage. Dose selection was made based on the results of acute toxicity test.

Group I: Control (Distilled water 10ml/kg)

Group II: Standard (Pentazocine 10mg/kg i.p.)

Group III: Test (Extract 200mg/kg orally)

 

Analgesic Activity:

Hot Plate method:

The hot plate assay method was employed for the proposed of hydroalcholic extracts of Achyranthes aspera. Each animal was individually placed gently on eddy’s hotplate at 55 ±1 ºC and cut off time of 0.15 sec. Latency to exhibit analgesic response such as licking paws or jumping off the hot plate were determined at 30,60,90,120 min. after the administration of drugs.9

 

Tail flick method:

The method was employed for the proposed of hydroalcholic extracts of Achyranthes aspera. Prescreened animal (reaction time-:3-5 sec.) A cut off period of 15sec. was observed to avoid damage to the tail. The reaction time was recorded at 30, 60, 90, 120 min. after the administered of drugs.9

 

RESULT AND DISCUSSION:

Acute toxicity studies:

Albino mice used in the acute toxicity studies were observed for the first four hours continuously during the study for next 14 days to observed and dose 200mg/kg as neither of the fraction had caused any signs and symptoms of toxicity, no behavioral changes and mortality within 24 hours for the next 14 days.

Analgesic Activity:

Hot Plate Method:

The analgesic activity of hydroalcoholic leaves extract of Achyranthes aspera L.. was assessed using hot plate method in albino mice. The hydroalcoholic leaves extract of Achyranthes aspera L. Showed significant analgesic activity at 200mg/kg. Analgesic activity was comparable with standard drug pentazocine. The dose 200mg/kg showed maximum analgesic activity at reaction time 120 min (7.40±0.08) is slightly lower than the standard drug pentazocine (9.9±0.26) in this analgesic testing model, pentazocine significantly prolonged the reaction time of animals with relatively extended duration of stimulation. In the present study, extracts showed significant (p<0.05 and p< 0.01) analgesic activity.


 

Table 1: Analgesic effect of hydroalcoholic leaves extract of Achyranthes aspera L. on hot plate test in albino mice.

 

Group

Paw licking or jumping in seconds

0 min.

30 min.

60 min.

90 min.

120 min.

Control

2.15±0.13

2.10±0.20

2.18±0.12

2.21±0.08

2.19±0.21

Standard

2.18±0.18

2.9±0.04

6.7±0.2**

9.6±0.23**

9.9±0.26**

Test

2.25±0.14

2.2±0.23

4.5±0.25*

7.15±0.02**

7.40±0.08**

Values were mean ± SEM, (n=3), *P<0.05 **P<0.01 Vs control.

Data were analyzed by using One-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s test.

 


Figure 1: Analgesic effect of hydroalcoholic leaves extract of Achyranthes aspera L. on Hot plate test in albino mice.

 

Tail Flick Method:

The analgesic activity of hydroalcoholic leaves extract of Achyranthes aspera L.. was assessed using tail flick method in albino mice. The hydroalcoholic leaves extract of Achyranthes aspera L. Showed significant analgesic activity at 200mg/kg. Analgesic activity was comparable with standard drug pentazocine. The dose 200mg/kg showed maximum analgesic activity at reaction time 120 min (6.9±0.06) is slightly lower than the standard drug pentazocine (8.7±0.16) in this analgesic testing model, pentazocine significantly prolonged the reaction time of animals with relatively extended duration of stimulation. In the present study, extracts showed significant (p<0.05 and p< 0.01) analgesic activity.


Table 2: Analgesic effect of hydroalcoholic leaves extract of Achyranthes aspera L. on Tail flick method in albino mice.

Group

Tail flick in seconds

0 min.

30 min.

60 min.

90 min.

120 min.

Control

2.10±0.13

2.07±0.20

2.18±0.12

2.21±0.09

2.19±0.11

Standard

2.18±0.18

2.9±0.04

5.7±0.2**

7.6±0.23**

8.7±0.26**

Test

2.12±0.14

2.3±0.23

4.5±0.5*

5.9±0.02**

6.9±0.06**

Values were mean ± SEM, (n=3), *P<0.05 **P<0.01 Vs control.

 


Data were analyzed by using One-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s test

 

Figure 2: Analgesic effect of hydroalcoholic leaves extract of Achyranthes aspera L. on Tail Flick method in albino mice.

 

CONCLUSION:

This present study of Achyranthes aspera L.shows potent analgesic activity on animal model.This hydroalcholic extract compare with Pentazocine as using standard drug for this study.finally we can confirm that leaves of Achyranthes aspera posses marked analgesic activity.

 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS:

The authors wish to thank the Dr.Karnukar shukla to encouraging and providing the research facilities.

 

REFERENCE:

1.      Mehta F.A et.al.Antiociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of Achyranthes aspera extracts. Pharmacologyonline. 2009; 3: 978-985.

1.2. Guyton, A.C., and Hall, J.E. Textbook of Medical Physiology. Philadelphia : Elsevier Saunders; 2006.

2.      Singh, A., Malhotra, S., and Subban, R. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents from Indian medicinal plants. International Journal of Integrative Biology. 2008; 1: 57–72.

3.      USDA-NRCS. The Plants Database. Baton Rouge. USA: National Plant Data Center.; 2012.

4.      Aziz A, Rahman,et.al.. 3-Acetoxy-6-benzoyloxyapagamide from Achyranthes aspera. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2005; 4(2): 113-116.

5.      Umamaheswari M,et.al. Anticataract and antioxidant activities of Achyranthes aspera Linn. Against glucose-induced cataractogenesis using goat lenses. Journal of Natural Product and Plant Resources. 2012; 2: 153-161.

6.      Varuna, KM, Khan MU and Sharma PK.Review on A. aspera. Journal of Pharmacy Research.2010; 3: 714-717.

7.      Organisation for Economic co-operation and development ,Test no.423/acute oral toxicity-acute toxic class method in the OECD guideline for testing of chemicals OECD.Rome:2001.

8.      Bhosale Uma et.al. Antinociceptive evaluation of an ethanol extract of Achyranthes aspera (agadha) in animal models of Nociception. International Journal of Phytomedicine. 2010;  2: 440-445.

8.

 

 

Received on 21.07.2021         Modified on 04.08.2021

Accepted on 16.08.2021   ©Asian Pharma Press All Right Reserved

Asian J. Pharm. Res. 2021; 11(4):239-241.

DOI: 10.52711/2231-5691.2021.00041