Chemical Composition of Gmelina arborea: A Review

 

Yogita Chowdhary*

Sanskar College of Pharmacy and Research, Ghaziabad - 201001, Uttar Pradesh, India.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: Yogitachowdhary85@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Gmelina arborea is a fast-growing tree, which grows on different localities and prefers moist fertile valleys with 750–4500 mm rainfall. It does not thrive on ill-drained soils and remains stunted on dry, sandy or poor soils; drought also reduces it to a shrubby form. The tree attains moderate to large heights of up to 30 m, with a girth of 1.2 to 4 m. It has a chlorophyll layer just under the outer bark, which is pale yellow on the outside and white inside.Gmelina arborea wood is pale yellow to cream-coloured or pinkish-buff when fresh, turning yellowish brown on exposure and is soft to moderately hard, light to moderately heavy, lustrous when fresh, usually straight to irregular or rarely wavy grained and medium course textured. Flowering takes place during February to April when the tree is more or less leafless whereas fruiting starts from May onwards up to June. The fruit is up to 2.5 cm long, smooth, dark green, turning yellow when ripe and has a fruity smell. The fruit is edible and has a bitter-sweet taste.4 This tree is commonly planted as a garden and an avenue tree; growing in villages along agricultural land and on village community lands and wastelands. It is light demander, tolerant of excessive drought, but moderately frost hardy. It has good capacity to recover from frost injury. Gamhar trees coppices very well with vigorous growth. Saplings and young plants need protection from deer and cattle. Gmelina arborea grows naturally throughout India, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam and in southern provinces of China

 

KEYWORDS: Hallucination, Haemorrhoids, Gastralgia, Anasarca.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

A tall tree with young parts densely velvety tomentose. Leaves opposite, broadly ovate or elliptic-rhomboid, cordate or subtruncate, fulvous tomentose beneath1,2. Flowers orange-yellow or brownish yellow, in dichotomously branched, velvety tomentose panicles of 3- flowered cymes3,4. Drupes fleshy, ovoid or obolong, 1.5 cm long, orange-yellow or blackish, 1 or 2 seeded5,6. Found throughout India, from foot of North West Himalaya to Chittagong and throughout Deccan Peninsula7,8,9.

 

The root is acrid, bitter, sweet, stomachic, tonic, laxative, galactogogue and anthelmintic10,11. It is useful in hallucination, fever, dyspepsia, hyperdipsia, haemorrhoids, gastralgia, anasarca and burning sensation12,13,14. Bark is bitter, tonic and stomachic, and is useful in fever and dyspepsia15,16. Leaf pastes good for cephalagia and leaf juice is useful in gonorrhea, catarrh of bladder and is a good wash for foul ulcers17,18. The flowers are sweet, refrigerant, diuretic, astringent, aphrodisiac, trichogenous, alterant and tonic19. They are used for promoting the growth of hair and for anaemia, leprosy, ulcers, constipation, strangury, leucorrhoea, intrinsic haemmorhage, fevers and bilious infection20.

 

 

 


Table 1: Chemical Constituents of Gmelina Arborea

TERPENE

Root21

 

 

Gmelofuran

Heartwood22

 

 

ᵦ-Sitosterol

 

R=H

ESSENTIAL OIL

Fruits23

(Z)-3-hexenol

Fruits23

1-Octen-3-O-hexanol

ALIPHATIC ALCOHOL

Fruits23

 

Heptacosane

Fruits23

 

Pentacosane

PHENYLETHANOID GLYCOSIDE

Leaves24

(-)p-hydroxyphenylethyl[5’-O-(3,4-dimethoxycinnamoyl)-ᵦ-d-apiofuranosy(1’→6’)]-ᵦ-D-glucopyranoside

Leaves24

 

 

2,6-dimethoxy-p-benzoquinone

Leaves24

 

 

3,4,5-trimethoxyphenol

COUMARIN

Root25

 

 

Apiosylskimmin

FLAVONOL

Leaves26

 

 

Quercetin

Leaves26

 

 

Kaempferol

Leaves26

 

 

Apigenin

Leaves26

 

 

Luteolin

FLAVONE GLYCOSIDE

Leaves26

 

 

Kaempferol-3-rutinoside

Leaves26

 

 

Apigenin-7-rutinoside

Leaves27

 

Apigenin-7-glucuronide

Leaves27

 

 

Luteolin-7-glucuronide

IRIDOID GLYCOSIDE

Aerial part28

 

 

6-O-(2’’,3”-dibenzoyl)-α-L-rhamnopyranosylcatalpol

Aerial Part 29

 

 

 

 

 

Aerial Part29

R1=H R2=A 6-O-(3”-O-benzoyl)-α-L-rhamnopyranosylcatalpol

Aerial Part29

R1=H R2=B 6-O-(3”-O-trans-cinnamoyl)-α-L-rhamnopyranosylcatalpol

Aerial Part29

R1=H R2=C 6-O-(3”-O-cis-cinnamoyl)-α-L-rhamnopyranosylcatalpol

Aerial Part29

R1=Ac R1=A 6-O-(3”-O-benzoyl)-α-L-rhamnopyranosylcatalpolheptacetate

Aerial Part29

R1=Ac R2=B 6-O-(3”-O-trans-cinnamoyl)-α-L-rhamnopyranosylcatalpolheptacetate

Aerial Part29

R1=Ac R2=C 6-O-(3”,4”-O-dibenzoyl)-α-L-rhamnopyranosylcatalpol

6-O-(3”,4”-O-dibenzoyl)-α-L-rhamnopyranosylcatalpol

 

 

Iridoid glycoside

 

 

Leaves30

R1=H R2=H R3=H R4=H R5=A GmelinosideA

Leaves30

R1=Ac R2=AcR3=H R4=H R5=A GmelinosideB

Leaves30

R1=H R2=H R3=H R4=H R5=B GmelinosideC

Leaves30

R1=H R2=H R3=H R4=H R5=C GmelinosideD

Leaves30

R1=AcR2=H R3=Ac R4=H R5=D GmelinosideE

Leaves30

R1=H R2=H R3=H R4=Ac R5=E GmelinosideF

Leaves30

R1=DR2=D R3=H R4=H R5=H GmelinosideG

Leaves30

R1=DR2=DR3=Ac R4=H R5=H GmelinosideH

Leaves30

R1=B R2=H R3=BR4=H R5=H GmelinosideI

Leaves30

R1=F R2=H R3=FR4=H R5=H GmelinosideJ

Leaves30

R1=H R2=F R3=F R4=H R5=H GmelinosideK

Leaves30

R1=H R2=AcR3=AR4=H R5=H GmelinosideL

Leaves30

R1=H R2=D R3=H R4=H R5=H 6-O-(3”-O-trans-feruloyl)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl catalpol

Leaves30

R1=AcR2=A R3=AR4=H R5=H 6-O-(2”-O-acetyl 3”,4”-O-di-trans-cinnamoyl)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl catalpol

Leaves30

R1=H R2=H R3=H R4=H R5=H 6-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl catalpol

 

 

Heartwood31

R=H Arboreol

Heartwood 31

R=Me Methylarboreol

Heartwood 31

 

Heartwood 31

 

R=H Isoarboreol

Heartwood 31

R=Me Methyl isoarboreol

 

Heartwood 31

R=H 6”-bromo-isoarboreol

Heartwood 31

R=Me 6”-bromo-arboreol

Heartwood 31

 

Gmelanone

Heartwood 31

 

Keto-ester

Heartwood 32

Heartwood 32

R=H 4-Hydroxysesamin

Heartwood 32

R=Ac 4-Hydroxysesamin acetate

 

Heartwood 33

R=H Gummadiol

Heartwood 33

R=Ac Gummadiol acetate

Heartwood 34

 

Heartwood 34

R=H 4,8-Diydroxysesamin

Heartwood 34

R=Ac Diacetate of 4,8-Diydroxysesamin

Heartwood 34

 

Heartwood 34

R=H Triol

Heartwood 34

R=Ac Acetate of triol

Heartwood34

 

 

ᵞ-Lactone

Heartwood 35

Heartwood 35

R1=H R2=OMe Alkyl methyl ether

Heartwood 35

R1=OMe R2=H Equatorial methyl ether

Heartwood 36

 

Heartwood 36

R=OH Paulownin

Heartwood 36

R=H Sesamin

Heartwood 36

 

 

ᵞ-Lactone of 4-Hydroxysesamin

Heartwood 36

 

Heartwood 37

 

 

Di-ᵞ-Lactone of 4,8-diydroxysesamin

Heartwood 37

Heartwood 37

Ar1=4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl Dilactone

Heartwood 37

 

3,4-Methylenedioxyphenyl

Heartwood 38

 

Gmelinol

Heartwood 37

 

Ketoalcohol

Heartwood 37

Heartwood 37

Ar=3,4-methylenedioxyphnyl R=Glu 4-Epigummadiol-4-O-glucoside

Heartwood 37

 

 

7-Oxodihydrogmelinol

Heartwood 37

R=-CH2- R’=OH R”=H Arborone

ALKALOID

Leaves 39

 

 

Premnazole

 


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Received on 28.07.2021         Modified on 07.08.2021

Accepted on 14.08.2021 ©Asian Pharma Press All Right Reserved

Asian J. Pharm. Res. 2021; 11(4):269-277.

DOI: 10.52711/2231-5691.2021.00048