Analgesic activity and anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic extract of plant Sida cordata in carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats

 

Prajakta P Shinde1*, Shahu D Khule2, Sneha Sonawane3, Suvarna Shelke4

1Assistant Professor, SMBT College of Pharmacy, Dhamngaon, Igatpuri, Nashik-422403

2QA Executive, GSK, Pharmaceutical, Nashik.

3Assistant Professor, SMBT College of Pharmacy, Dhamngaon, Igatpuri, Nashik-422403.

4Assistant Professor, SMBT College of Pharmacy, Dhamngaon, Igatpuri, Nashik-422403.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: pp_shinde123@rediffmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

India has rich heritage of use of medicinal plants in clinical practices since ancient times. Diabetes mellitus is a group of syndromes characterized by hyperglycemia, altered lipid, carbohydrate and protein metabolism, and an increased risk of vascular disease complications. More than 400 plant species have been recorded to display hypoglycemic effects, but only a few of them have been investigated. Although many drugs are available to control the diabetes but has several adverse effects. The plant Sida cordata activities have been reported such as Antibacterial, Antitumor, Antifungal, Antiulcer, Antitussive, Anti-inflammatory, Anti-malarial, Anti-oxidant, Analgesic, Antidepressant, Antihyperglycemic, Hepatoprotective in ayurvedic system of medicine. This research was conducted undertaken In order to investigate the anti-diabetic activity of methnolic extract of Sida cordata.  The two dose (100 and 200 mg/kg) methnolic extract of Sida cordata used for treatment of Alloxan induced diabetic rats. The glucose level was significantly (p<0.01) high in Alloxan control rats when opposed to normal control. But the level of glucose was significantly (p<0.01) decreased after 7th day in diabetic rats treated with methanol extract (200 mg/kg) as compared with diabetic control rats.

 

KEYWORDS: Sida cordata, Diabetes mellitus, Alloxan induced etc.

 

 


1. INTRODUCTION:

In India, various plants are commonly used in the treatment of different kinds of diseases known as Ayurvedic Medicine process. Homeopathic, Siddha, Naturopathy, Unani like alternative medicine systems also comprise various products obtained from plants. There are thousands Species of Plants which may be employed in clinical practices.

 

Various plant parts like roots, stem, bark, leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds & whole plants are used in various forms of medicines. They may be used alone or combined with other parts of the plant. There are very clear ancient references for utilization of these plants in clinical treatments.1,2

 

Herbal medicine is the use of herbs for their medicinal and therapeutic or medicinal value. Herbal medicine applies to wellness methods, approaches to knowledge and values focused on plant, animal and mineral medicine, spiritual therapies, manual procedures and exercises applied individually or in combination to cure, diagnose and prevent diseases or to preserve well-being, according to the World Health Organization (WHO).3,4

 

 

Diabetes mellitus is a group of syndromes characterized by hyperglycemia, altered lipid, carbohydrate and protein metabolism and increased risk of vascular disease complications More than 400 plant species have been stated to display hypoglycemic effects, but only a few have been reported. Although many drugs are available to control the diabetes but has several adverse effects .5,6

 

Sida cordata is highly reputed plant in ayurvedic system of medicine for the treatment of various ailments. This research was performed by undertaken In order to investigate the anti-diabetic activity of methnolic extract of Sida cordata. Diabetes in rats is induced by injecting Alloxan. Rats with blood glucose level above 250mg/dl were taken for the experiment. Glibenclamide 5mg/kg was used as a standard drug. The two dose (100 and 200 mg/kg) methnolic extract of Sida cordata used for treatment of Alloxan induced diabetic rats. Blood glucose level was checked at 1st, 7th, 14th and 21st day through the tail vein puncture method using digital Glucometer. 7-20

 

2. MATERIAL AND METHODS:

2.1 Plant collection:

The whole plant Sida cordata (Burm. F.) Borss. Was gathered in the month of December from Tirupati hills, A.P., India. The plant material was taxonomically identified, confirmed and authenticated by Dr. K. Madhava Chetty, Assistant Professor, Department of Botany, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati-517502, A.P., India.

 

2.2 Preparation of extract:

The plant was dried under shade with occasional shifting and then powdered with a mechanical grinder and stored in an airtight container.

 

The dried coarse powder of Sida cordata (Burm. F.) Borss. Extracted (at 650c) in soxhlet apparatus for 72 hrs. by using the 4 liter of Methanol solvent. The extract is then filtered through Whatman filter paper 45# and concentrated by evaporation till dry powder.

 

2.3 Phytochemical analysis:

Using standard procedures and tests, phytochemical screening of the crude leaf extract was carried out to reveal the presence of chemical constituents such as alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenes, saponins, anthraquinones ,reducing sugar, cardiac glycosides, among others..13-24

 

3. ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY:

3.1 Test animals:

Wister albino rats weighing between 150-200 gm were used in this study. The animals were randomly positioned and assigned to the care group in propylene paddy husk cages as bedding. At a temperature of 24 ˚C and relative humidity, animals were housed 30-70%. A 12:12 dark: light cycle. All the animals were allowed to free asses to the water and feed with standard commercial pellet rat chew. All the experimental procedure and protocols used in this study were reviewed by Institutional Animal Ethics Committee (IAEC), proposal number NCP/IAEC/NO: 15/2011-12 and were in accordant with guidelines of the IAEC.

 

3.2 Chemicals:

1. Alloxan monohydrate.

2. Diethyl ether.

3. Carboxy methyl cellulose.

 

3.3 Drugs:

1. Methanol extract of Sida cordata (Burm. F.) Borss.

2. Glibenclamide 5mg/kg.

 

3.4 Biochemical Parameters:

The blood sample was obtained from all the animals by puncturing retro orbital puncture of eye of animal. The blood sample was allowed to clot for 5 mins at room temperature. Serum was separated by centrifugation at 2500rpm at 30˚C for 15 mins and utilized for the measurement of various biochemical parameters namely glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, total proteins, alkaline phosphatase.

 

3.5 Experimental Protocols:

Rats weighing 150-200g, fasted overnight and used for induction of diabetes. Alloxan monohydrate solution of 10 mg/ml was prepared in normal saline and was administered to the rats within 5 min at a dose of 150 mg/kg body weight i.p. After 48 hrs. of Alloxan monohydrate administration, rats with blood glucose level above 250mg/dl were taken for the experiment.

Rats were divided into six groups each with six animals.

 

v Group I received normal diet and served as normal control.

v Group II consists of Alloxan-induced rats receiving normal diet and serving as diabetic control.

v Group III consists of Alloxan induced rats receiving Glibenclamide 0.5 mg/kg body weight once a day orally.

v Group IV consists of Alloxan-induced rats receiving 100mg/kg Sida cordata methnolic extract once a day orally.

v Group V consists of Alloxan-induced rats receiving 200mg/kg Sida cordata methnolic extract once a day orally.

 

All group animals were treated for 21 days. Blood glucose level was checked at 1st, 7th, 14th and 21st day through the tail vein puncture method using digital Glucometer.

 


Table 1: Effect of methanol extract of Sida cordata (burm. F.) Borss. On blood glucose level.

Group

Description

1stday

7th day

14th day

21st day

 

 

 

 

 

 

Group I

0.5 % CMC

100.83± 2.482

101.00±1.844

101.33± 2.028

101.5± 2.012

Group II

150 mg/kg of Alloxan.

286.16± 3.591

291.83±3.361

289.166± 3.582

284.66± 3.938

Group III

0.5 mg/kg/Day Glibenclamide

299.00ns±2.733

270.16**±2.742

210.16**±3.410

138.5**± 4.667

Group IV

Methnolic extract of plant 100 mg/kg.

294.16ns±4.254

285.00ns±4.655

261.00*± 4.219

195.00**± 2.997

Group V

Methnolic extract of plant 200 mg/kg.

291.5ns± 3.216

278.66**±3.062

222.5**± 3.294

145.66**± 4.080

Data represents mean ± S.D. (n=6).

*p< 0.05 Significant as compared to Alloxan control.

**p< 0.01 Significant as compared to Alloxan control.

***p< 0.001 Significant as compared to Alloxan control.

ns: non-significant compared to normal control.

 

Fig. 1 Effect of methanol extract of Sida cordata (burm. F.) Borss. on blood glucose level.

NC= Normal control.                                                                 DC= Diabetic control.

GLB = Standard drug                T1= Plant extract 100mg/Kg/Day.

T2= Plant extract 200mg/Kg/Day.

 


4. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS:

The collected data were subjected to appropriate statistical test including one-way ANOVA, followed by an appropriate Dunnett’s t-test, P-value of less than 0.05, 0.01 and 0.001were considered as less significant, significant and more significant respectively. The analysis was carried out using graph pad prism software.

 

5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS:

The plant Sida cordata (Burm. F.) Borss. Belonging to the family of Malvaceae was selected for the phytochemical and biological activities. The plant was collected in the month of December 2011 from Tirupati hills, A.P., India, and authenticated by the botanist for confirmation. Methanol extract was subjected to phytochemical analysis. Results were shown the presence of the Flavonoids, Tannins, Sterols, Tri-terpenoids, Alkaloids and Glycosides. The anti-diabetic activity of methnolic extract of Sida cordata (Burm. F.) Borss. was compared with that of standard drug, it shows the significant anti-diabetic activity in dose dependent manner as shown in Table 1. The glucose level was significantly (p<0.01) high in Alloxan control rats when compared with normal control. But the level of glucose was significantly (p<0.01) decreased after 7th day in diabetic rats treated with methanol extract (200 mg/kg) as compared with diabetic control rats.

 

6. CONCULSION:

From the results obtained we conclude that the methnolic extract of the plant Sida cordata (Burm.F.) Borss. possess the potential anti-diabetic activities. Therefore, this medicinal plant can be considered effective and alternative treatment for the diabetes.

 

7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT:

I would like to thank Shahu D. Khule for support and guidance to complete the work.

 

8. REFERENCES:

1.      K. R., Basu B. D., Indian Medicinal Plants, International Book Distributors, Deharadun, India, Text Vol. I, 302- 304, 306-314.

2.      PDR for herbal medicine, Thomson Publication, 4th Edition, 3-4.

3.      Agrawal SS, M Paridhavi, “Herbal Drug Technology”, University Press, 1-25.

4.      Kokate CK, Purohit AP and S. B. Gokhale. Pharmacognosy, Nirali Prakashan Publications. 28th Edition, 1.4-1.8.

5.      Robbin’s and Cotran’s “Pathology Basis of Disease. 18th Edition: pp. 853, 891, 1139-1146.

6.      Ross and Wilson’s. Anatomy and Physiology In Health and Illness, 11th Edition: pp .299-300, 300-303.

7.      Lippincotts, “Illustrated Review of Pharmacology”, 225-257.

8.      Diabetes Mellitus, David Squirrell, Spr Ophthalmology Royal Hallamshire Hospital Sheffield, Judith Bush General Practitioner and Clinical Assistant in Ophthalmology, 1-33.

9.      T. Pullaiah, K. et al., Antidiabetic plants in India and herbal based antidiabetic research, A database on anti-diabetic plants, 129

10.   D. Gnanasekaran, et al, Adaptogenic Activity of A Siddha Medicinal Plant: Sida cordata, International Journal Of Pharmaceutical And Biomedical Research, 2012, ISSN No: 0976-0350.

11.   Sandhya.S, et al, Plants as a potent anti-diabetic and wound healing agents – A review, Hygeia, Journal for Drugs and Medicines, Vol.3, 2011, 11-19.

12.   D. Gnanasekaran, et al, In vitro hepatoprotective activity of a selected siddha medicinal plant Sida cordata using chang liver cells, Research article, Jan 2012, ISSN: 2249-3384.

13.   Trease and Evans, “A Text Book Of Pharmacognosy”, 449-452.

14.   M. Ramakrishnan, et al., Hypoglycemic activity of Coccinia indica Wight & Arn. Fruits in Alloxan-induced diabetic rats, Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources, 2011; Vol. 2(3): 350-353.

15.   A. K. M. M. Rahman, et al, Three New Flavonol C-Glycosides from Sida cordifolia Linn, Journal of the Iranian Chemical Society 2007; Vol. 4: 175-181.

16.   Ghanekar BG. Sutrasthana. In: Sushrut  Samhita. Varanasi: Motilal Banarasidas; 1981. pp. 3.

17.   K. Chandra, BG. Chaudhari, BP. Dhar, Joseph JV, Mangal AK, R. Dabur, et al. Database on medicinal plants used in Ayurveda. Cent Counc Res Ayurveda Siddha 2007;8: pp.42-58.

18.   EM. Franzotti, CV. Santos, HM. Rodrigues, RH. Mourão, MR. Andrade, AR. Antoniolli. et.al Anti-inflammatory, analgesic activity and acute toxicity of Sida cordifolia L. (Malva-branca). J Ethnopharmacol 2000; 72(1-2) :pp.273-7.

19.   Singh A, Malhotra S and Subban R et al: Anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents from Indian Medicinal Plants, International J. of Integrative Biology 2008; Vol 3,57-72

20.   Gunatilaka AAL, Sotheeswaran S, Balasubramaniam S, Chandrasekara AI, Badrasriyani HT et al. Studies on medicinal plants of Sri Lanka. Planta Med 1980; 39: pp.66-72.

21.   Obadoni BO, Ochuko PO. Phytochemical studies and comparative efficacy of the crude extract of some homeostatic plantsin Edo and Delta states of Nigeria”. Global J Pure Appl Sci 2001; Vol.: pp.203-208.

22.   Bohm BA, Kocipai Abyazan R. Flavonoid and condensed tannins from the leaves of Vaccinum raticulation and Vaccinum calcyimium. Pacific Sci 1994; Vol. 48:pp.458-463

23.   Zafar R, Lalwani M. Tribulus terrestris Linn. A review of current knowledge”, Indian Drugs 1989:2Vol (3):pp.148- 158

24.   Doss A. 2009. Preliminary phytochemical screening of some Indian Medicinal Plants. Anc Sci Life, 29Vol.(2): pp.12‐16.

25.   Sutradhar RK, Rahman AK, Ahmad MU, Bachar SC, Saha A, Guha SK. et.al Bioactive alkaloid from Sida cordifolia Linn. With analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Iran J Pharmacol Ther 2006; Vol 5(2):pp. 175-8

 

 

 

Received on 22.01.2021            Modified on 18.04.2021

Accepted on 28.05.2021   ©Asian Pharma Press All Right Reserved

Asian J. Pharm. Res. 2021; 11(3):143-146.

DOI: 10.52711/2231-5691.2021.00027