Natural Remedies used in the Treatment of Psoriasis: A short Review

 

Shivi Sondhi*, Navdeep Singh, Shammy Jindal

Laureate Institute of Pharmacy Jawalamukhi, Kathog-177101, Distt. Kangra, Himachal Pradesh.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: shivi96sondhi@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Psoriasis is an auto immune mediated inflammatory disease and autoimmune disease and no permanent cure. Psoriasis is non-contagious, dry and inflammatory skin disorder. The mechanism involves immune system to skin cell. Psoriasis are different parts induced on skin and characterized by sharply scaly, erythematous plaques. The psoriasis suffering any kind patients not depend on particular age and sex develop the disease. The causes are found genetic, environmental and immunologically. A variety of treatment available in market some are expensive and some are so much side effects. Ayurveda helps to diagnose psoriasis by natural plant. The treatment according to Ayurveda depends in their elements and Doshas. Herbal drug safe nature and easy availability as potential as anti-psoriatic activity. Psoriasis explore the proliferative activity. Herbal resources to develop a potent, safe and reliable therapy. Herbal creams, herbal gels and herbal lotions are mostly available and used in the treatment of psoriasis disease.

 

KEYWORDS: Psoriasis, Natural plants, Herbal remedies, treatment, Ayurveda.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

Psoriasis is an autoimmune chronic disease in which environmental and genetic factors as an own significant role. The disease name derived from Greek word ‘psora’ means itch and ‘isis’ means inflammation. Psoriasis is non-contagious, dry and inflammatory skin disorder. It mainly characterized by sharply scaly, erythematous plaques and most commonly affected areas are scalp, fingers tips, toes, palms, elbows, under the breasts and genitals, knees. If one twin has psoriasis then possibility the other twin is three times more than affected. In this disease skin keeps scaling as flakes called as psoriatic plaques. Due to rapid and excessive growth of epidermis cells which looks fishy skin. During winter and certain medications such as beta blockers, NSAIDs, psychological stress can cause psoriasis. The mechanism involves immune system reacting to skin cell. Diagnosis based on the signs and symptoms.

 

The silvery white plaques are caused by accelerated regeneration and accumulation of skin sites. Due to rapid destruction process. Plaques psoriasis frequently appears on skin of elbows and knees size range may few millimeters to a large part of limb or trunk. Psoriasis can cause inflammation of joints which known as psoriatic arthritis. Psoriasis linked to dandruff and arthritis as well as linked to HIV virus[1,2].

 

Ayurveda:

Ayurveda is Sanskrit derive from two words Ayur and Veda. The word ‘Ayus’ means Life and the word ‘Veda’ means knowledge or science. Hence the whole Ayurveda word says that knowledge of life[7].

 

Treatment:

The Ayurveda follows five great natural elements Prithvi (earth), Jal (water), Agni (fire), Vayu (air) and Akash (sky). According to these natural elements immune system working naturally must be harmony with fault, tissue and impurity. Ayurveda deals with three energies element (Doshas), Vatt (energy of movement), Pitta (energy of digestion and metabolism) and Kapha (energy of lubrication). These doshas or elements depends Vatt (Air + Space=Wind), Pitta ( Fire + Water = Bile), Kapha (Water + Earth = Phlegm)[7].

Epidemiology:

Psoriasis affects both male and female equally and can occurs at any age. It most commonly appears first time age between 15 and 30 years. Psoriasis in western populations is estimated around 2-3%. The study found 25% people suffering with psoriasis. In United Kingdom suffering with psoriasis around 1.5% among 7.5 million patients registered. A survey conducted by Americans found among 2.1%. The most commonly age of 20 years. Males and female both are equally affected with psoriasis[1,3,4].

 

Causes:

The cause of psoriasis is generally believed a genetic component. Psoriasis factors in immune systems and other biochemical substances that normally regulate proliferative and maturation of epidermal cells are impaired. They cause inflammation and increased proliferation of skin cells. These are including stress, excessive consumption of alcohol and smoking. Suffering from advanced effects of human immunodeficiency virus or HIV psoriasis. According to Ayurveda all factors combine with change in life style, constipation, indigestion and stress that leads to psoriasis. Stress, skin injuries, streptococcal infection, and certain medications are some of known potential triggers. Medications that can trigger psoriasis are anti-malarial drugs, beta- blockers and lithium[5,10].


 

Table: Basic types of psoriasis

Types of psoriasis

Description of disease

Psoriasis skin

Skin psoriasis

This is one type of psoriasis known as papulosquamous disease that includes vulgaris, guttate, inverse, and pustular.

Vulgaris: inflammation and red lesions that covered by silvery white scales skin.

Guttate: spots on skin like drop

Inverse: navel, buttocks and under arms etc.

Pustular: yellowish pus on skin, blisters and erythrodermic psoriasis.

Treatment: used different natural remedies

 

Nail psoriasis

Nail psoriasis are pitting, distal onycholysis, yellowish discoloration and paronychia, hyperkeratosis. Psoriasis develop characteristic nail matrix.

 

Psoriatic arthritis

Psoriatic arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease occurring and can develop slowly or rapidly. Arthritis similar to rheumatoid arthritis.

 

 


ETIOLOGY:

Environmental Factors:

The environmental trigger factor can be mechanical injury, ultraviolet rays and chemical injury. The various infections, drug use, psychological stress, depression, smoking and other factors[1,6].

 

Genetic Factors:

The genetic factor found clear genetic basis. The incidence found greater first and second degree relatives of psoriasis patients[2,6].

 

Immunological Factors:

Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease. Psoriasis lesions by increasing activity of T cells under skin. They include stress, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking and consumption of drugs[1,2].

 

Herbal Treatment:

Herbal medicines are important useful role and less side effects. The natural plants are best source used in medicinal products. Herbal medicines easily available and use to diagnose disease. Psoriasis symptoms can be relieved by change in diet, life style, fasting food period, low energy diet and vegetarian diets that improved psoriasis. In treatment of psoriasis some supplements with fish oil (omega-3 fatty acids) and Vitamin E. Cannabis also treating psoriasis to anti-inflammatory properties. Natural remedies used for psoriasis treatment. The brief note on natural plants used mainly treatment of psoriasis[8,10].

 

Aloe vera/ Aloe barbadensis:

Aloe vera is the biologically active and popular used plant among 400 species of Aloe barbadesis. Aloe vera is belonging to the family of Liliaceae. Aloe vera contains anthraquinones, steroids, saponins, mucopolysaccharides and salicyclic acid. It contain active constituents acemannan and include anthraquinone. The used to treat antibacterial activity against staphylococcus and streptococcus species and provide therapeutic efficacy in psoriasis.

 

Aloe vera is used in preparation of cosmetic care and manufacturing natural drugs. It is also used in first aid products in case of thermal injuries [8, 9, 10].

 

Angelica sinensis:

Angelica sinensis is common name known as Dong quay. They contain furocourmarin i.e. psoralen. Psoralen are potent photosensitizers in presence UVA. They are used to ultra violet therapy or natural sunlight and also used in treatment of psoriasis[8,9].

 

Burdock:

Burdock is medicinal species and source Arctium lappa, Arctium minus, Lappa or Bardanae radix. Burdock is belonging to family Asteraceae/Copositae.

 

Burdock contain from constituent sulfur, polysaccharides, mucilages (xyloglucan) and lignans (arctigenin). Burdock used to treat arthritis and psoriasis and several skin disease. This plant also used in cancer remedies, treat respiratory infections and fevers. They are used combination burdock and wine to treat leprosy. They acts as an anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antineoplastic and antioxidant activity[10].

 

Capsicum annuum:

Capsicum annuum is common name known as Cayenne component of capsaicin. They belonging to family Solanaceae. They are used in psoriasis, neurogenic inflammation, vasodilatation, hyperproliferation[8,9].

 

Curcuma longa:

Turmeric extract contain from source of rhizome Curcuma longa. The belonging to family Zingiberaceae. It is contain in curcuminoids and volatile oils. They used in treatment in pain, inflammation, osteoarthritis, fever, depression, high cholesterol, liver disease and anti-proliferative activity[8,10].

 

Devil claw:

Devil claw is the source of Harpagophytum procumbens. It belonging to the family Pedaliaceae. They found in southern Africa. The main constituent decarboxylated iridoid glycosides and harpagoside. The main component of procumbide, harpagide. They used as anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic, arthritis, psoriasis and several skin diseases[8,10].

 

Feverfew:

Feverfew is the source of Tanacetum parthenium. The herbs inhibits blood platelet aggregation and release of 5-hydroxytryptamine from platelets. It is belonging the family Asteraceae. This plant is traditional plants to treat arthritis, psoriasis, allergic effects and skin diseases[9,10].

 

Liquorice:

Liquorice is dried unpeeled rhizome or root Glycyrrhiza glabra. Liquorice is belonging to the family Fabaceae. Liquorice contain water-soluble, active constituent of Glycyrrhizic acid, flavonoids, liquiritigenin and isoliquiritigenin. They cultivated in Spain, Italy and France. They are used as anti-pain properties, demulcent, corticosteroid and anti-inflammatory activity. The herbal extract used to treat psoriasis[10].

Mohonia aquifolia:

Oregon grape is source of bark extract of Mohonia aquifolia. They contain constituents 5-lipoxygenase, berberine, berbamine, oxyacanthine and lipid peroxidation. It is a very popular plant used in skin disorders and psoriatic plaques. They inhibitor of keratinocytes growth[8,10].

 

Silybum marianum:

Milk thistle is source contain from leaves and seeds of Silybum marianum. The belonging to family Asteraceae. They contain silibinin (silybin), silychristin and silidianin. Silibinin is most biological active constituent. The seeds contain flavonoliganans, betaine, apigenin, proteins, silybonol, free fatty acids and fixed oil. They used to treat liver diseases, gallbladder, anti-oxidant and hepatoprotective activity and psoriasis[9,10].

 

Wrightia tinctoria:

Wright tinctoria is common name known as Sweet Indrajao, Pala Indigo, Dyer’s Oleander. They are belonging to family Apocynaceae. They can used to be treat psoriasis, antioxidant activity[9,10].

 

CONCLUSION:

Psoriasis is autoimmune disease cause inappropriate activation of cellular immune system. Psoriasis has a significant impact not only patient health but also on a patient quality of life. Psoriasis basis the development of treatments that more adequately and psychologically debilitating disease. Lots of medicines available in market but herbal are less side effects or less toxic effects. The herbal remedies have good potency with compare to synthetic system. Herbal natural remedies is safe and equal effective as synthetic drugs. Several types of plant have been shown effect in psoriasis treatment. Herbal remedies are more helpful to treat any kind disease and according to current scenario herbal are more preferable than the other drug delivery systems.

 

REFERENCES:

1.      Kuchekar A.B., Pujari R.R., Psoriasis: A Comprehensive review, Int. J. of Pharm. and Life Sci., Vol.2, issue6: June 2011, 857-877.

2.      Marzano A.V., Derlino F., Berti E.F., Pathogensis of Psoriasis: Focus on Autoinflammation, Research Dermatology, Feb 2018, 14-15.

3.      Gladman D.D., Cheung C., HLA-C Locus Alleles in Patients with Psoriatic Arthritis, Dec.1998, 259-261.

4.      Ram S., Indian psoriasis research; An impact assessment through bibliometric studies, Research JSCIRES, May- Aug 2013, vol.2, issue 2, 126-131.

5.      Levine D. evaluation and management of psoriasis: An internist’s guide, medical the clinics.com, 2009, 1291-1303.

6.      Vincent N., Devi R. D., Progress in psoriasis therapy via novel drug delivery systems, Dermatology report 2014, Vol. 6, 14-18.

7.      Abraham N., Krishnan N., Raj A., management of psoriasis-ayurveda and allopathy- A review, international journal of dermatology and clinical research, ISSN 2455-8605.

8.      Singh K.K., Tripathy S., Natural treatment alternatives for psoriasis a review on herbal resources, journal of applied pharmaceutical sci., vol.4, Nov. 2014, 114-121.

9.      Sahu R. Jain N.K., Tiwari P., Herbal remedies: A new era for psoriasis disease, IJPSR 2011, Vol. 2, issue 3, 525-533.

10.    Aghmiuni A.I., Akbarzadeh K.A., medicinal plants to calm and treat psoriasis disease, INTECH, 2017, 1-28.

 

 

 

 

Received on 24.06.2020            Revised on 07.08.2020

Accepted on 11.09.2020   ©Asian Pharma Press All Right Reserved

Asian J. Pharm. Res. 2021; 11(1):43-45.

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5691.2021.00009.5