Eupatorium triplinerve (Vahl): An Ethnobotanical Review
 
Dr. Binoy Varghese Cheriyan1*, Sabartina scarlet2, Priyadarshini2, Shailesh joshi2, Santhseelan2, Sheik Mohamed2

1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Analysis, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences,

Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Pallavaram, Chennai – 600117, Tamil Nadu, India

2Research Scholar, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Analysis, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Pallavaram, Chennai – 600117, Tamil Nadu, India.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: drbinoycheriyan@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl is a perinial shrub native to Amazon rainforest of South America. Eupatorium triplinerve vahl belongs to the Asteraceae family, which is popularly known as ayapana. The leaves and the whole plant were used as traditional medicine in India and several parts of the world. This plant is propagated by seeds and harvested in summer. It is commonly used in Brazilian folk medicine as sedative, febrifuge, stimulant, anti-inflammatory and tonic. This species is found to be rich in secondary metabolites and are widespread in indigenous flora can provide cheap alternatives resources. This article summarizes the list of activities carried out or studied on the plant.

 

KEYWORDS: Eupatorium triplinerve, anti-microbial, anti-bacterial, ayapana, anti-inflammatery, anti-ulcer.

 

 


1.0 INTRODUCTION:

Eupatorium triplinerve (Vahl.) is popularly called as ayapana (synonyms-ayapana triplinerve and eupatorium ayapana) is an ornamental herb.  Ethanomedical studies reveal that plant and its decoction widely used for medicinal purpose in countries like Brazil, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Mauritius, West Indies, Peru and Europe Phytochemical studies reveal that the plant is rich in terpenoids and coumarin derivatives, The plant is reported to posses analgesic anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anticoagulant, antioxidant.

 

A review on ethno medical, pharmacological, phytochemical and toxicological properties of E.triplinerve provides an attractive bio resource for drug research using natural products. Ayapana is also known as Vishalyakarni in Sanskrit and it is considered as an herb that heals the wounds and controls blood coagulation. The leaves and stem of Ayapana plant are indicated in bleeding diarrhoea, bleeding from stomach or bleeding from any parts of the body.

 

 

Fig.A.1 Leaf part of Eupatorium triplinerve.

1.1 Macroscopical character:

Stem is reddish in colour. Leaves are purple, sub sessile, lance late, 3-nerved, acuminate, subentive, and glabrous. Inflorescence, few headed corymbs, head pedicel late about 20 flowered. Flowers are pale pink colour and the thin hairless Fruit are achenes, narrowly oblong, 5-angled, and about 2 milli meters length. The leaves resembles like the ear of goat. Ayapana is small herb having strong odour and growing to the height of 2-4 feet. The flowers are pale pink and the thin, hairless stem is reddish in colour, flower slaty blue. The plant is a native of Brazil and American continent. It grows all over India in the temperature climate. [1-3]

 

1.2 Taxonomical classification:

Kingdom: Plantae, Class: dicotyledons, Order: asterales, Family: asteracea, Genus: eupatorium l, Species: Eupatorium triplinerve vahl.

 

1.3 Synonyms:

Ayapana triplinervis (Vahl) and Eupatorium ayapana is known as Vishalyakarni in Sanskrit belongs to family Asteracea. Plant is native of Brazil, now found throughout India in marshes and also as a weed in plantations.

 

1.4 Vernacular Names:

English: ayapana tea, Sanskrit: Vishalyakarni, Ayaparnah, Marathi: ayapana Hindi ayapana, ayaparna, Bengali: Ayapana, mrithasanjeevni, Tamil: ayapana

 

1.5 Phytochemical constituents:

Leaves-contains an essential oil, coumarins ayapanin and ayapin, stigmasterol, esculetin methylene ether (the methylene ether and esculatine), vitamin c and carotene.

 

Ayapanin and ayapin are non-lethal, neamostatic properties and powerful when applied locally or when directed by subcutaneous infusion or orally. Leaves of the plant contain ayapanin and ayapin long with carotene and vitamin C. The plant yields many chemicals such as coumarins chemicals, cineol, alpha phellandrene, alphatereneol, ayapanin. ayapin, coumarine, sabinene, umbliferone and many others.

 

1.6 Traditional uses:

Ayapana incorporates a general purifying report on the body. It helps revive liver role and cleans all body organs. This manner restores the cells and tissues of the body expanding the lifespan and imperatives of the body. Ayapana has antiseptic properties (gram free properties) which help in curative wounds and avoiding development of ulceration. When consumed orally it helps to stop haemorrhage in our body and it also heat ulceration anyplace within (or) inside the gout that prevents bleeding. It is helpful in ailments like gastric and duodenal ulcers, crohn’s disease and haemorrhoids. Ayapana leaves have properties which will manage fever, cough and cold naturally. Entire part of the plant together with stem, leaves and rats can be made into a decoction to get rid of malarial (protozoal infection) fever. For insect bites, injuries and bleeding bath internal and external sterile paste or glue of ayapana leaves can be handly. Ayapana is an extraordinary alternative or option for managing or dealing menstrual irregularities in females. Oral health issues like periodantitis and stomatitis can be reassured with the ulceration of new juice of the leaves of their plant. [4]

 

2.0 IN VITRO AND IN VIVO STUDIES:

2.1 Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity:

Acetic acid induced twisting and formaline induced nociception and hot water tail immersion methodology they were used to identify the anti-nociceptive activity of petroleum ether extract of leaves of herb plant. The petroleum-ether extract was ready as a suspension in 1 Chronicles tween 80 and administered orally to the experimental animals. A bunch of animals treated with vehicle (1% tween 80) served as management. morphine (5mg and 10mg/kgsc) was used as a typical drug for comparison. The petroleum ether concentrate of E. triplinerve vahl was subjected to primer photochemical screening. Intense toxic quality investigations were done in Swiss albino mice. petroleum ether take away displayed vital hindrance of acidic acid induced writhing, lessened the paw-licking time interval essentially in formol check and enlarged the withdrawal latency time in tall immersion test. Carrageenan instigated hind paw edema was primarily diminished in rats[5-8]

 

2.2 Anti-microbial property:

Petroleum ether, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform and ethyl acetic acid derivatives and concentrates of Eupatorium triplinerve vahl. Leaves were discovered for their antimicrobial exercises against 11human pathogenic microscopic organisms and six phytopathogenic parasites. The rough concentrates or extract indicated great movement against the organism tested herein The antimicrobial activities of the oil obtained from the leaves and therefore the stem and thymohydroquinone dimethylether were known victimization disk diffusion assay against strains of gram-positive and gram negative bacterium, showing restrictive activity against P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, K. pneumoniae and E. coli. The oil showed the anti-fungal activity against In others studies, the oil from aerial components of the plant and recent leaves square measure exhibited, moderate the antibacterial drug activity against B. megaterium, B. subtilis, B. cereus, S. aureus, E. coli, V. cholerae, S. dysenteriae, S. sonnei, S. typhi, bacteria genus sp. and S. paratyphi. The oil incontestable robust antifungal activities against A. alternata, C. lunata, B. theobromae, C. corchori, F. equiseti and M. phaseolina (Begum et al., 2010; Sugumar et al., 2015) [9-11]

2.3 Anti-ulcer Activity:

The Eupatorium triplinerve primarily based therapy resolved that some constituents in extract have associate degree anti-ulcer result against UC at colon specific space through its inviolable radical scavenging activity. It has some antiulcer result on Eupatorium triplinerve vahl against ethanoic acid induced colitis in mice.[12]

 

2.4 Anti-fungal Activity:

The in vitro antifungal activity of the oil of E. triplinerve make up my mind by poisoned food technique (Grover and Moore, 1962). Potato dextroglucose agar medium was used for culture of fungi. Every experiment was recurrent thrice. Linear mycelia growth of flora was measured when 3-5 days of incubation[13-14]

 

2.5 Antibacterial Activity:

The in vitro bactericide activity of the oil was firm by disc diffusion methodology (Bauer and Kirby, 1966). Agar medium was used for culture of bacterium. Every experiment was recurrent thrice. All the results were compared with the quality bactericide antibiotic penicillin (20 µ g/disc). [15]

 

3.0 CONCLUSION:

The plant Eupatorium triplinerve vahl is often called as ayapana and it is an ornamental upright perennial herb with aromatic leaves and it is belongs to Asterecea family. Greater community of the people in rural and urban regions of the world are being depended on the medicinal plants for the treatment of infectious diseases. Most of the people in India abundantly used the unani and ayurvedic system of medicine. Secondary metabolites are given as primary role even though there are different metabolites. Various ailments had to be evaluated for in-vitro antibacterial, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer activity. The phytochemical analysis of Eupatorium triplinerve was evaluated and reported and thus used as an anti-bacterial and anti-ulcer activity.

 

4.0 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:

The authors are thankful to the School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science, Technology, and Advanced Studies, and its management for providing research facilities and encouragement.

 

5.0 REFERENCES:

1.     Chopra R.N., Nayar S.L. and Chopra I.C. (1956). Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants. CSIR, New Delhi, 113 pp

2.     Nandkarni, K.M. (1976). Indian Materia-Medica. Bombay Popular Prakashan, 521 pp

3.     Satyavati, G.V., Raina, M.K. and Sharma, M. (1976). Medicinal Plant of India. ICMR, NewDelhi, 397pp

4.     Ghani, A. 1998. Medicinal plants of Bangladesh: Chemical constituents and uses. 1st edn. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. pp. 174.

5.     Melo, Ademar Soares, et al. "Antinociceptive, neurobehavioral and antioxidant effects of Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl on rats." Journal of Ethnopharmacology 147.2 (2013): 293-301.

6.     Parimala, K., Cheriyan, B. V., and Viswanathan, S. (2012). Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of Petroleum-ether extract of Eupatorium triplinerve vahl. J Pharm Sci, 2(3), 12-18

7.     Winter CA, Risley EA and Nuss GW. Carrageenan induced oedema in hind paw of the rats as an assay for anti-inflammatory drugs. Proc Soc Exp.Biol Med. 1962; 111: 544

8.     Cheriyan BV, Venkatadri N, Viswanathan S and Kamalakannan P. Screening of alcoholic extract of Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl and its fractions for its antinociceptive activity. Indian Drugs. 2009;46 (10): 797-802

9.     Verpoorte, and R Dihal, Medicinal plants of Surinam IV. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1987; 21: 315-318

10.   Kokate, CK Rao and RE Varma. Pharmacological studies on the essential oil of Eupatorium triplinerve. Effect on the central nervous system and antimicrobial activity. Flavour. 1971; 2(3): 177-180

11.   Ahmed, A.M.A., M.S. Rahman and M.N. Anwar. 2002. Antimicrobial activity of extracts and crude alkaloids isolated from the leaf of Adhatoda vasica Nees. Bangladesh J. Life Sci. 15(2) : 125-128.

12.   Krishnan, Manigandan, et al. "Antioxidant mediated antiulcer effect of Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl against acetic acid induced ulcerative colitis in mice." Biomedicine & Aging Pathology 4.2 (2014): 153-160.

13.   Miah, M.A.T., H.U. Ahmed, N.R. Sharma, A. Ali. and S.A. Miah. 1990. Antifungal activity of some plant extracts. Bangladesh J. Bot. 19(1): 5-10.

14.   Anwar, M.N., P.J. Singha, J. Begum and J.U. Chowdhury. 1994. Antifungal activity of some selected plant extracts on phytopathogenic fungi. Bangladesh J. Life Sci.6(2): 23-26

15.   Raman, M.S., M.N. Anwar and A.Z.M.S. Chowdhury. 1999. Antibacterial activity of secondary metabolites from Holarrhena antidysenterica stem bark. Bangladesh J. Microbiol. 16(2): 101-105.

16.   Sugumar N Department of Botany, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India

17.   Bose P, M Gupta, UK Mazumder. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Eupatorium ayapana against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Int J Pharm Technol. 2007 6:127–3

 

 

 

 

 

Received on 22.05.2019        Accepted on 25.06.2019

© Asian Pharma Press All Right Reserved

Asian J. Pharm. Res. 2019; 9(3):200-202.

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5691.2019.00032.7