Prevalence of Alcohol Consumption in an Urban Population of Dehradun
 
Shahnawaz Ahmad Teli, Yogesh Joshi*
Department of Pharmaceutical Science, Shri Guru Ram Rai Institute of Technology & Science, 
Shri Guru Ram Rai University, Dehradun-248001, Uttarakhand, India

*Corresponding Author E-mail: yogeshjoshi1583@rediffmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

A descriptive, randomized and observational study was conducted to assess the prevalence of alcohol consumption in an urban population of Patelnagar, Dehradun, Uttarakhand. A total of 1214 subjects were randomly selected and initially screened as alcohol consumer. Out of 1214 subjects, 544 subjects were alcohol consumers showing prevalence rate of 44.81%. Basic socio-demographic data of 544 alcohol consumers were collected by using self-modified structured questionnaire. Prevalence of alcohol consumption was more among males (40.36%) as compared to that in females (4.45%). Gender wise distribution of alcohol consumers showed that there were more males (90.07%) as compared to female (9.93%) and age wise distribution showed that majority of alcohol consumers belongs to the age group of 26-35 years (35.29 %). Illiterate consume alcohol at a higher rate (47.05%) than other educated groups. Majority of alcohol consumers belongs to medium level of living standard (46.69%) and consumption of alcohol was found higher in those who are occupationally skilled and professional (64.7%) as compared to unskilled and semi-skilled (35.29%). So, educational interventions among those who are at a higher risk and management of alcohol dependent subjects may help in reducing the burden of alcohol use in them.

 

KEYWORDS: Alcohol, consumption, prevalence, distribution, consumers.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

According to World Health Organization, 3.7% of all deaths in all age groups are attributed due to alcohol (6.1% in men and 1.1% in women). Also excessive alcohol use can lead to physical, psychological and social harm1,2. Data from different Indian states indicate that 35% to 65% of all current drinkers meet criteria for hazardous alcohol use. A nationwide survey on drug abuse showed that the prevalence of alcohol consumption was 21% among men and 2% among women in India3.

 

 

The consumption alcohol is a part of our daily lives. Alcohol has been using for a wide range of reasons and in various cultural and social contexts4. Individuals might also drink for relaxation, addiction, enhanced creativity, boredom, pleasure, habit or to escape or forget troubles5. Whatever the reason, most of us in our lives have consumed some kind of alcohol at some point. The moderate alcohol intake is usually accepted. However, alcohol is commonly misused which affects our lives socially and psychologically6.

 

Research suggested that prolonged or excess use of alcohol can lead to psychological damage, mood disorders particularly anxiety and depression. It was also found that heavy use of alcohol may exacerbate the severity of common symptoms associated with schizophrenia such as hallucinations7. The excessive alcohol consumption not only has adverse impact on individual but also on the general community. Family issues such as spouse abuse, marital break-up and domestic violence are strongly associated with heavy alcohol use. High alcohol use also increases the incidents of violent crimes8. Other social effects of alcoholism are higher insurance premiums, public and private property damage, decrease in workplace productivity, increased traffic fatalities, increase in work related accidents and decline in health and development of chronic health conditions9-11.

 

METHODOLOGY:

The present study was a community based descriptive, randomized and observational study which was conducted in a rural population of Patelnagar, Dehradun, Uttarakhand (India) from the month of January 2018 to June 2018. The study population involved were of age ≥18 years, both gender and subjects who gave consent to participate in the study. Study started only after obtaining their informed consent. The participants were interviewed by using a self-modified structured questionnaire and data on socio-demographic details was collected respectively. A subject who consumed alcohol in the past 12 months was taken as the criteria for defining alcohol use.

 

RESULTS:

A total of 1214 subjects were randomly selected and initially screened as alcohol consumer. Out of total subjects, only 544 subjects were alcohol consumers who were in the age group of 18 years and above, reflected 44.81% prevalence rate of alcohol use. It was further analyzed that the prevalence of alcohol consumption was more among males (40.36%) as compared to that in females (4.45%) as shown in Figure 1.

 

 

Figure 1: Prevalence of alcohol consumption

 

Socio-demographic details of alcohol consumers were shown in Table 1. Gender wise distribution of alcohol consumers showed that there were more males (90.07%) as compared to female (9.93%). Marital status showed that unmarried subjects (60.29%) were consuming more alcohol as compared to married subjects (39.71%). Age wise distribution showed that majority of alcohol consumers belongs to the age group of 26-35 years (35.29 %) followed by the age group of ≤ 25 years (29.04%) and age group of 36-45 years (20.95) while remaining age groups showed very less number of alcohol consumers. Education wise distribution showed that majority of alcohol consumers were illiterate (47.05%) followed by those who had completed their graduation (30.51%) while there were less number of alcohol consumers in remaining education groups. Socio-economic status wise distribution showed that majority of alcohol consumers belongs to medium level of living standard (46.69%) followed by low (28.86%) and high (24.44%) level of living standard. Further, consumption of alcohol was found higher in those who are occupationally skilled and professional (64.7%) as compared to unskilled and semi-skilled (35.29%). From Table 2, distribution according to the type of alcohol preferences showed that majority of subjects have a preference to Beer (47.05%) followed by Mixed (33.63%), Wine (30.33%), Brandy (16.91%) and Arrack (13.41%).

 

Table 1: Socio-demographic details of alcohol consumers

Prevalence factors

Number of subjects (%) (n=544)

Gender

Male

Female

 

490 (90.07)

54 (9.93)

Marital Status

Married

Unmarried

 

216 (39.71)

328 (60.29)

Age (Years)

≤25

26-35

36-45

46-55

56-65

>65

 

158 (29.04)

192 (35.29)

114 (20.95)

34 (6.25)

31 (5.69)

15 (2.75)

Education Status

Illiterate

Intermediate

Graduation

Above graduation

 

256 (47.05)

45 (8.27)

166 (30.51)

77 (14.15)

Standard of Living (Rs. per Month)

Low (<20000)

Medium (20000-40000)

High (>40000)

 

157 (28.86)

254 (46.69)

133 (24.44)

Occupation

Unskilled and Semi-skilled

Skilled and Professional

 

192 (35.3)

352 (64.7)

 

Table 2: Distribution according to the type of alcohol preferences

Alcohol preferences

Number of subjects (%) (n=544)

Beer

256 (47.05)

Brandy

92 (16.91)

Wine

165 (30.33)

Arrack

73 (13.41)

Others (Mixed)

183 (33.63)

 

DISCUSSION:

The problem of alcohol use in India has widely attracted the attention of the public, researchers, workers and policymakers. The major sources of revenue in most states are alcohol production and sales taxes (Rs. 25,000 crore) and have been cited as a reason for permitting the sale of alcohol12. Several field surveys of alcohol consumption and general psychiatric morbidity have been carried out during the past 35 years in different parts of the country. A recent study conducted among men in a slum area in Kolkata which reported the overall prevalence of alcohol consumers to be 65.8%, while a Vellore study reported that alcohol use in the past year was 34.8%13. The present study reported the overall prevalence of alcohol consumers as 44.81% (544 per 1214 people). A study which was done in Faridabad revealed the prevalence of alcohol use to be 24.6% among men, while none of the women had used alcohol14. In contrast, our study showed the prevalence of alcohol use of 40.36% among males and 4.45% among females. Report from another study showed that the consumption of alcohol in Amritsar, Punjab, is higher (87.5%) than that in the present study15. A study reported that the prevalence of alcohol dependents and hazardous or harmful consumers are 1% and 9% respectively in the age-group of 19 years and above16, which is much lower than that in the present study. The results of the present study showed that the mean age of the consumers of alcoholic beverages was 29.4 years, which is the medium age. Overall, current study revealed the 44.81% prevalence of alcohol intake among the 18-65 years age-group. The National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) revealed the 13.4% prevalence of alcohol intake among the 15-49 years age-group17. Studies in the provinces of southern India have shown a higher prevalence rate of alcohol consumption among the poor and the lesser educated people18, while another study was done in the same place showed that alcohol consumption was not associated with the income19. The current study showed a different pattern in which most of the adults belonging to medium socio-economic status showed a higher rate (46.69%) of alcohol consumption compared to adults belonging to low and high socio-economic status (28.86% and 24.44%). Study showed only 12.7% illiterate as alcohol consumers, but the present study showed higher rate of illiterates (47.05%)20.

 

CONCLUSION:

In this area, alcohol consumption was an important public health problem, due to the high prevalence among males and a larger involvement of adult age group. According to experts, alcohol use is on the rise in India and two third of those who drink do so to a harmful extent, so action must be taken. The results of present study showed that the prevalence of alcohol use is high among young people between 26 and 35 years of age. Prevalence was high among males. Necessary rehabilitation and awareness among the population will help in bringing down the prevalence of alcoholism.

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Received on 30.08.2018       Accepted on 28.11.2018

© Asian Pharma Press All Right Reserved

Asian J. Pharm. Res. 2019; 9(2): 87-89.

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5691.2019.00014.5