Volume No. :   4

Issue No. :  1

Year :  2014

ISSN Print :  2231-5683

ISSN Online :  2231-5691


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An Aqueous Extract of the Leaves of Chromolaena odorata Moderated Plasma Biochemical and Hematological Indices of Sub-Chronic Salt-Loaded Rats



Address:   Jude Chigozie Ikewuchi*, Catherine Chidinma Ikewuchi and Mercy Onuekwuzu Ifeanacho
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Chemical Sciences, College of Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B. 5323, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
*Corresponding Author
DOI No:

ABSTRACT:
The ability of aqueous extract of Chromolaena odorata leaves to moderate plasma chemistry and hematological indices was investigated in sub-chronic salt-loaded rats. The normal and treatment control groups received a diet consisting 100% of commercial feed, while the test control, reference and test treatment groups received an 8% salt-loaded diet. The extract (100 and 200 mg kg-1 body weight) and moduretics (1 mg kg-1 body weight) were orally administered daily. The normal and test control groups orally received appropriate volumes of water. The extract was screened for bioactive phytochemicals, using gas chromatography-coupled flame ionization detector. Three known glycosides (mainly arbutin, 99.95%), four known saponins (mainly avenacin B-1, 85.80%), three allicins (mainly diallyl thiosulphinate, 84.16%) and forty two alkaloids (mainly indicine-N-oxide, 51.02%) were detected. Also detected were twenty four known terpenes (mainly limonene, 74.26%), eight benzoic acid derivatives (mainly ferulic acid, 86.83%) and eight lignans (mainly retusin, 71.80%). Compared to test control, the extract dose-dependently, significantly lowered (P<0.05) neutrophils and monocytes counts, mean cell hemoglobin, mean cell hemoglobin concentration, plasma activities of alanine and aspartate transaminases, and concentrations of sodium, urea, total protein and bicarbonate. However, it significantly increased (P<0.05) platelets, red cells, total white cells and lymphocytes counts, plasma levels of creatinine, potassium, chloride, calcium and albumin corrected calcium. These results suggest that the leaves antihypertensive action may be mediated via alteration of plasma sodium and potassium levels or changes in muscle tone orchestrated by changes in plasma calcium levels.
KEYWORDS:
Chromolaena odorata; hematological indices; phytochemicals; plasma chemistry.
Cite:
An Aqueous Extract of the Leaves of Chromolaena odorata Moderated Plasma Biochemical and Hematological Indices of Sub-Chronic Salt-Loaded Rats. Asian J. Pharm. Res. 4(1): Jan.-Mar. 2014; Page 24-35.
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